Articles
Articles

“Material” Variants of Modal and Spectral Methods of Seismic Response Analysis

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The author discusses the change in the damping type in SDOF system from viscous to material one. This is valid both for modal and spectral methods. The main advantage is clear “physical sense” of the damping model both for homogeneous systems and for “composite” systems. However, the procedure to obtain time-domain responses for material damping is slightly more complicated, as it is performed via frequency domain.



Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


“Normal” and “Abnormal” Effect of Damping on the Dynamic Response of Linear System

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Annotation:   Specialists working in earthquake engineering generally are sure that increase in damping causes the decrease in response; e. g. response spectra for increasing damping decrease in the whole frequency range. Hence, underestimation of damping in analysis leads to the conservative results. The author shows that even elementary SDOF oscillators sometimes in certain frequency ranges demonstrate “abnormal” effect of damping on the dynamic response (i. e. response increases along with the increase of damping). For the modes with frequencies in such frequency ranges, the underestimation of modal damping leads to the underestimation of response. This effect is more pronounced for the narrow-banded excitations. Broad-banded excitation mitigates this effect, shifting the frequency range of abnormal damping to the low natural frequencies of oscillators. The abnormal damping effects may be of special importance in two special cases: for seismo-isolated structures with very low natural frequencies, and for high-frequency dynamic excitations (like aircraft impact).
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Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


«Dangerous Directions of Seismic Excitation» in Linear Spectral Analysis

Key words:   seismic response, linear spectral method, modal analysis in the time domain, dangerous directions of seismic excitation
Annotation:   This paper opens the discussion on the «dangerous directions of seismic excitation» concept. This concept is popular for linear spectral analysis in our country. The author compares this approach with conventional «multi-component» approach used in the international practice for nuclear structures. It is shown that in case all components of seismic excitation have similar response spectra, both approaches give similar results, in spite of the principal physical difference in excitations (no correlation between components in the «multi-component» approach versus full correlation in the «directional» approach). The reason of this similarity is a math analogy between SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) rule used for (i) the combination of maximums for the statistically independent functions; (ii) combination of vector’s components along orthogonal axes to get absolute value of vector. Similarity of the component response spectra is commonly adopted for two horizontal axes. However, vertical component usually has different spectrum; therefore the «directional» approach in the initial form cannot be applied. On the other hand, if spectral shapes are not very different (e.g. for the widespread case when vertical spectrum is taken as 2/3 of horizontal spectrum), the «directional» approach can be easily modified. One has to envelop normalized spectral shape curves and also scale participation factors for all natural modes in vertical direction.


Issue:    №3 2019
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:        


“Dangerous Directions of Seismic Excitation” and Combination of the Close Modal Responses in Linear Spectral Analysis

Key words:   seismic response, linear spectral method, modal analysis in the time domain, dangerous directions of seismic excitation
Annotation:   This paper continues the discussion on the linear spectral analysis using “dangerous directions of seismic excitation” concept. It is shown that in case all components of seismic excitation have similar response spectra, this “directional” approach, though non-physical, gives similar results to the conventional more physical approach, accounting for the statistical independence of diffrent components. This statement, previously proved for the modal responses with separated frequencies, here is extended for the case of close modal frequencies. If the excitation is diffrent, the “directional” approach leads to the systematic errors. The author once again considers the inertial load vectors in the nodes and studies which of them rotate along with the rotation of the “seismic excitation direction” set up by the analyst, and which of them keep their direction and change only module. Besides, the author notes certain limitation of the implementation of the D’Alambert principle to the quasi-static analysis of the damped systems. It turns out, that this approach, treating inertial loads as quasi-static and neglecting damping in the left-hand parts of the equation, gives reasonable results only for the internal forces, but not displacements, and only for systems either with homogeneous damping, or statically-determined.

Issue:    №4 2019
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


“Old” and “New” Nodes in Modeling of Complicated Soil Environment

Key words:   seismic response, complicated soil environment, upgraded soil pad, combined asymptotic method
Annotation:   Complicated soil environment” means that under the basement there is a certain finite soil volume with properties breaking horizontally-layered initial soil composition. The author discusses two alternatives in modeling such volume. The “old nodes” approach means that one and the same set of internal nodes is used both for the outcropped soil and for the substituting soil. The “new nodes” approach means that a new set of the internal nodes (with the same coordinates) is introduced for the substituting soil. The author shows that the difference in the results is caused by special feature of the SASSI program: after the outcrop the old internal nodes stay with certain “residual” non-zero stiffness. If the substituting soil
is hard enough, this difference is negligible: “new nodes” approach will not give new results. But in case of soft substituting soil this “residual” stiffness can spoil the results of the “old nodes” approach. In such cases the “new nodes” approach is justified in spite of the increase of the problem size. Combined Asymptotic Method (CAM) is extended for the case of the “new nodes” approach; the capability of CAM is further extended. The topic is important because of the implementation of the upgraded soil pads under the base mats of the heavy structures in seismic regions.

Issue:    №6 2019
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


“Difficult” Questions of Development of Seismic Microzoning

Key words:   seismic microzonation, seismic impacts, response spectrum, seismic rigidity, site coefficient, modeling, continuity, nonlinearity, reduction coefficient
Annotation:   The regulatory framework for earthquake-resistant construction in Russia has recently been supplemented by a number of new long-awaited documents. This seemingly positive phenomenon gave rise to a situation that in one article was not without reason called «normative chaos». This situation is largely due to the difference between the basic concepts and relations of new and familiar old normative documents, which generates a state in the mind, defined by psychologists as cognitive dissonance. Of course, this phenomenon is temporary and understandable, but for the case of examination and passage of working documentation, it is certainly harmful. This work aims, at least in part, to provide answers to questions.
The most important contradictions are briefly considered and reasoned answers to the questions are given. A complete analysis of the problems involved requires much more than the allowable size of the article.

Issue:    №6 2019
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


16 European Conference on Earthquake Engineering

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Annotation:   The article provides information about the 16th European conference on earthquake engineering and the General Assembly of the European Association for earthquake engineering, which took place in Thessaloniki (Greece) from 18 to 21 June 2018.

Authors:    Smirnova L.N.   
Rubric:     Conferences. Symposia. Meetings   


Application of augmented reality methods in construction

Key words:   augmented reality, innovative technologies, construction, BIM design
Annotation:   The application of virtual augmented reality (AR) in the construction industry based on the use of information modeling technologies (BIM) has great prospects. An augmented reality space with a presence effect can facilitate better interaction between customers and specialists in various technical issues related to the implementation of the construction project. Combined with the concept of building information modeling, AR technologies can improve the general understanding of the construction process. Using the newest augmented reality technologies allows you to work out both the entire project and its individual details as accurately as possible. Object visualization in the real world can be improved by combining AR as well as BIM technologies, since the interactive capabilities provided by AR software and access to BIM information data allow you to more intuitively solve the tasks of maintenance and construction management. This article analyzes the current state of augmented reality technologies in construction, identifies the problems and prospects of using these innovative technologies in the construction sector, describes the methods of using the latest technologies under study in the construction sector, and also presents indicators affecting decision-making using augmented reality technologies. The article considers the possibility of reducing the implementation time of certain stages of investment and construction activities taking into account the introduction of augmented reality, provides examples of construction companies from different countries developing software and development companies using augmented reality technologies for marketing purposes, and concludes that augmented reality is promising in construction.
Issue:    #4 2021
Authors:    Raziapov Ruslan V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Free Vibrations of Rigid Kinematic Support of Yu.D. Cherepinsky

Key words:   kinematical rolling support, free vibrations, Lagrange equation
Annotation:   The author derives the equation of free vibrations for kinematical rolling support of Yu.D.Cherepinsky. Both support and the surface below are assumed rigid. It is shown that Lagrange equation is similar to the equation of motion for rotational oscillator where the rotation centre, rotational inertia and stiffness are changing every moment, depending on displacements. This equation can be further simplified to the linear form with the error proportional to the second degree of displacements. This equation looks somewhat like the equation for classical pendulum, but effective length in our case is controlled by curvature radii of support and of the rolling surface, as well as by the position of vertical load relative to the centre of the support. Non-linear characteristic is soft. The main nonlinearity is in the inertial term, and not in the stiffness term.
Issue:    №2 2020
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Spitak Catastrophe: Expert Opinion

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Annotation:   In the article of the Spitak Earthquake are estimated. The following is a part of a structured scheme: low seismicity of the glacier beds, high seismicity of panels, as well as seismicity of the earthquake zones and coordination. Scale of destruction in different towns of Armenia is being examined. The city of Leninakan (Gyumri) has landed at 40 km from the village of Spitak, and the city of Kirovakan (Vanadzor) in 25km. However, the scale of destruction in Leninakan is much larger than in Kirovakan due to the fact that part of the city is located on water-saturated clay soils, which increase the intensity of seismic action, in addition, the dominant periods of oscillations of buildings in forms 1, 2 and 3 coincided with the period of ground vibrations. This was a “seismic resonance” and amplified the amplitude of the oscillation process, which is one of the 9-10 erosional disintegration of the mass disintegration.

Authors:    Minasyan A.V.   
Rubric:     Viewpoints   




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Issue:    №3 2019
Authors:    Smirnova L.N.       
Rubric:     Conferences. Symposia. Meetings   


Recent Worldwide Application of Seismic Isolation and Energy Dissipation and Conditions for Their Correct Use

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Annotation:   About 20,000 structures, located in over 30 countries, have been protected by seismic isolation (SI) and other anti-seismic (AS) systems and devices. Their use is increasing everywhere, but it is strongly influenced by earthquake lessons and the features of the design rules used. All seismically isolated structures located in areas hit by violent earthquakes survived them without any significant damage. As to design rules, SI is considered as an additional safety measure in some countries, while, in others, the codes allow to partly take into account the reduction of the seismic forces acting on the superstructure that is caused by the use of this technique. This paper summarizes the application of the AS systems in the most active countries, by devoting particular attention to SI of Italian buildings, stresses the conditions for the correct use of this technique and mentions recent initiatives of the Italian Parliament to ensure it and to possibly extend it to the high risk chemical plants.
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Authors:    Clemente P.    Forni M.    Martelli A.   



XII Российская Национальная Конференция по сейсмостойкому строительству и сейсмическому районированию (с международным участием) 12-16 сентября 2017 года, республика Крым, г.Ялта

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Annotation:   В работе XII Российской Национальной конференции по сейсмостойкому строительству и сейсмическому районированию приняли участие более сотни специалистов из различных регионов Российской Федерации – с Сахалина и Камчатки, из Новосибирска, Иркутска, Кемерово, Томска, Абакана, Самары, Нижнего Новгорода, Сочи,
Симферополя, Санкт-Петербурга, Москвы, Махачкалы, из стран СНГ – Республики Кыргызстан, Республики Казахстан, Республики Узбекистан, а также – Республики Сербия.
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Authors:    Editor   
Rubric:     Conferences. Symposia. Meetings   


XIII Russian National Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismic Zoning (with International Participation) 16th World Conference on Seismic Isolation, Energy Dissipation and Regulation of Dynamic Characteristics of Structures

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Issue:    №4 2019
Authors:    Bubis A.A.    Smirnova L.N.   
Rubric:     Conferences. Symposia. Meetings   


Absolute Сumulative Velocity as a Measurement of Earthquake Strength

Key words:   energy characteristics of seismic input, Arias intensity, seismic energy density, absolute cumulative velocity, plastic forces’ work, range of energy characteristics
Annotation:   In this paper the aspects of determination of energy characteristics of seismic input are studied. The range of various energy characteristics is estimated. The index of range of statistical data shows that using cumulative absolute velocity is preferable to using Arias intensity. The parameters of distribution of absolute cumulative velocity values are described. Each mark on the Richter scale corresponds to one constant velocity value.

Issue:    №5 2019
Authors:    Prokopovich S.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Design Accident Events and Emergency Seismic Loads

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Annotation:   The article describing the mechanism of emergency through a sharp resonance phenomenon. Basic formulas and analytical expressions are included. It is suggested the possibility of using a sharp resonance phenomenon as the impact in the calculation of the buildings on the SSE level on seismic areas.
Issue:   
Authors:    Vedyakov Ivan I.    Vladimir K. Vostrov   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Updated Version and Problems of Further Development of SNiP II-7-81* “Construction in Seismic Areas”

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Annotation:   The paper presents the abridgement of the updated version of SNiP II-7-81* Chapter (SP 14.13330.2011 “Construction in seismic areas”).
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Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


The Actualized Russian Earthquake Design Code Was Approved and Was Put in Force by Russian Government July 1, 2015

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The task of the future code modernization is the mutual adaptation of the engineering and the seismological parts of the code.


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Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.    Rogozhin E.A.    Smirnov V. I.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Updated are Design Standards «Construction in Seismic Regions» (SNIP II-7-81), on the Agenda are Updating Maps of General Seismic Zoning

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When updating a SNIP II-7?81 «Construction in seismic regions» some fundamental changes are made. These changes necessitate changes in the methods, as well as in maps of general seismic zoning (GSZ), which are used in the current regulations. The new updated standards and the old GSZ maps are incompatible.

The paper presents the reasons and examples of this incompatibility. Some suggestions on the expected results for the GSZ update maps of updated design standards «Construction in seismic regions» are also presented.


Issue:   
Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ И ОПЫТ ПРОЕКТИРОВАНИЯ ЗДАНИЙ И СООРУЖЕНИЙ В СЕЙСМИЧЕСКИХ РАЙОНАХ

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Issue:    №1 2019
Authors:    Editor   
Rubric:     Conferences. Symposia. Meetings   


Algorithm Development of Information System Designed for City Planning

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Currently, among the geo-information systems a special place is occupied by The Information Systems Designed for City Planning, organized in accordance with the requirements of the Town Planning Code.

In order to standardize such systems, we have developed a structural-functional model of The Information System Designed for City Planning. Based on this model an algorithm is offered. This allows to create information systems that meet all the specified requirements. Thus The Information Systems Designed for City Planning maintains compatibility with other software products built according to this model and corresponding algorithm, as well as a number of existing information systems.


Issue:   
Authors:    Zaalishvili V.B.    Kanukov A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety in city planning   


ALGORITHMS FOR DETERMINATION OF SEISMIC RISK FOR BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN WITH DUE CONSIDERATION OF SEISMIC ZONING DATA

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Annotation:   The paper studies the matters of quantitative estimation of seismic risk values for buildings and structures with due consideration of new seismic territorial zoning maps of the Republic of Kazakhstan. On the example of seismic risk value calculation for 2 experimental fragments of skeleton-type industrial buildings, influence of occurrence frequency of earthquakes is assessed. Non-linear deformation of indicated building fragments is taken into consideration. There is also provided an example of risk value calculation for buildings at the local site. Importance of availability of necessary legalized
seismologic information for seismic risk assessment for RK inhabited localities is noted.
Issue:   
Authors:    Yerzhanov S.Е.    Vladimir A. Lapin   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


АЛЬТЕРНАТИВНЫЙ МЕТОД ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЯ СЕЙСМИЧЕСКИХ НАГРУЗОК НА ЗДАНИЯ НЕРЕГУЛЯРНОЙ СТРУКТУРЫ БЕЗ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ СПЕКТРАЛЬНОЙ ТЕОРИИ

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Annotation:   Is reviewing an alternative method to determine of seismic loads on the building of irregular structures, based on the resistance of structure to deformations of oscillation, without use of the response spectrum.  It is known that the degree of seismic effects on structures depends on the suppleness, and by decreasing their rigidity, the seismic loads are reduced. However, to ensure the strength and performance characteristics the building design is performed with the certain stiffness of structural elements, that determine the character of their oscillatory motion. This factor is used in this method for determining the seismic loads on buildings. The seismic impact is applied at the level of foundation, causing the displacement of foundations and a oscillations of the building. Corresponding external loads that could cause such oscillations, are adopted as seismic loads.
Issue:   
Authors:    Atabekyan R.A.   
Rubric:     Viewpoints   


Alternative Method of Defining Seismic Loads on Buildings without Application of Implicit Factors

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The paper considers the alternative method of defining seismic loads on buildings based on the law of conservation of momentum. The expressions for defining seismic loads without any implicit factors (including ?) are obtained. Here appears an opportunity to take into account the soils’ strength characteristics, the foundation configurations and dimensions, the wave ray tilt angle, etc. The design formulas comprise quantitatively determinate and simple parameters of a building and foundation soils. Comparative analysis of the design results according to the proposed procedure and the methods specified in codes and recommendations on earthquake engineering has been carried out.


Issue:   
Authors:    Atabekyan R.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Interaction of surface Rayleigh waves with seismic barriers and pile fields

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Annotation:   In this work, the interaction of surface Rayleigh waves with seismic barriers and pile fields is performed in order to analyze the possibility to implement these methods for vibration protection of the territories from surface Rayleigh waves that can be generated by both natural and artificial vibration sources. The parameters of the barriers and pile fields are analyzed to select the optimal values that will provide maximum vibration decrease. In addition to that, it is shown that these protection methods are sufficiently effective and allow to reduce the amplitudes of displacements, velocities and accelerations in the protected zone.
Issue:   
Authors:    Dudchenko A.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Analysis of Application Possibility of Program Geostudio Quake/W Complex for Modelling of Technogenic Vibration

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Annotation:   Nowadays more and more attention is paid to the research of various sources vibration impact on bases and buildings foundations. However not all sources are studied equally therefore researches which will allow to estimate and predict vibration level from different sources are necessary. One of the most effective research methods is numerical modeling. The article purpose is to show a possibility of using of the Quake/W module of the program GeoStudio complex for studying of vibration from transport. At the same time the following problems were solved: to describe operation of the module; to reveal the necessary basic data; to determine the necessary parameters for the solution of a test task; to carry out the numerical modeling on the example of a test task; to compare results of numerical and natural experiment; to estimate a possibility of application of a program complex for definition of vibration influence from motor transport. The description of numerical modeling on the basis of conditions of the test platform is provided in the article. The analysis of the results received at natural and numerical experiment has shown that the received values are close in size, the divergence is no more than 40%. On the basis of told it is possible to make a conclusion on a possibility of using of the Quake/W module of the program GeoStudio complex for modeling of transportvibration. However further researches for more exact forecasting of influence of dynamic sources on bases and foundations are required.

Authors:    Ponomaryov A.B.    Shutova O.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Analysis of dynamic reaction of the building at actual seismic influence

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Annotation:   In compliance with amount of works on monitoring of dynamic behavior of buildings and constructions in seismodangerous areas the CREE TSNIISK named after V.A. Kucherenko carried out of installation work of station of dynamic monitoring in Kamchatka region. During operation of stations there was one earthquake measuring 7,7 and epicenter in the 200th kilometers from the settlement of Nikolskoye.
Issue:   
Authors:    Vakhrina G.N.    Chupanov M.R.    Giziatullin I.R.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Analysis and assessment of the risk of accidents of a structure as a system by the method of "Fault Tree Analysis" on the example of a nuclear power facility under seismic impact

Key words:   risk, accident, failure, analysis method, "Fault Tree Analysis", probability, safety, seismic impact, building structures, structure, "wet" spent nuclear fuel storage
Annotation:   The article discusses a method for analyzing the risk assessment of failures of the structure as a system by developing a "Fault Tree Analysis". Formulas were proposed for the numerical estimation of the probability of system failure, taking into account the stochastic dependence of the failures of its elements. On the example of a nuclear power facility, a "wet" stand-alone storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, an analysis of possible scenarios of a facility failure was carried out, a "Fault Tree Analysis" was developed and calculated under seismic impact. It has been determined that the risk of structure as a
system under seismic impact is determined by the risk of falling process
equipment and building structures on the overlap of storage compartments or
stored nuclear fuel. To increase the safety of building structures under
seismic impact, it is necessary to pay special attention to the design features
of the frame part and the interface between the monolithic storage compartment
and the frame part, as the most vulnerable link. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Zenchenkova Diana V.    Travin Sergei M.   
Rubric:     Seismic risk and damage   


Analysis of Kinematics of the Earthquake at the «Kashivazaki-Kariva» Nuclear Power Plant

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In present article are considered seismic acceleration data (accelerogramms) recorded at the site of the NPP Kashivazaki-Kariva (Japan) at the earthquake of 16.07.2007 with epicenter in Japan see. As a result of the earthquake some buildings, structures and infrastructure objects of NPP were damaged. As marked in the report of the mission of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), significant part of these damages was caused by big displacements of the soils.

Site of NPP was provided by the net of accelerometers located at different levels and oriented at three cardinal directions. At the time of earthquake the accelerometers were in operating state, and the records of accelerations (accelerogramms) were obtained. In present work evaluation of the velocities of seismic oscillations and evaluation of seismic displacements of soils were fulfilled on the base of analysis of three-component accelerogramm recorded at the free surface of the soil. 


Issue:   
Authors:    Nefedov S.S.    Rodin P.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Analysis of damage of vertical cylindrical storage tanks during earthquakes

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Annotation:   Development of Oil and Gas Industry leads to significant amount of storage tanks being built in earthquake-prone zones. During seismic events, tanks suffer damage of different types. This article discusses main types of defects and failures, their causes, and applicability to each kind of tanks. A classification of these damages in accordance with two levels of assessment of the consequences of earthquakes adopted in regulatory documents of Russian Federation is proposed. Based on the results of the analysis, factors that ought to be taken into account for developing the seismic procedure of storage tanks are identified. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Shigapov R.R.    Kovalchuk O.A.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Analysis of the Damage of the Architectural Monuments of Syria Resulted From Earthquakes and Hostilities

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Annotation:   This article discusses the analysis of damage received, architectural monuments on the territory of Syria: Castle of Krak des Chevaliers; the Great Umayyad Mosque in Aleppo; the Great Mosque in Maarat al-Numan; Triumphal Arch in Palmyra, Colonnade street in Palmyra; Mosque Omar in Bosra as a result of past earthquakes and the fighting that began in 2011. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Aldrebi Ziad Ahmad    Tatiana A. Belash   
Rubric:     Seismic risk and damage   


Analysis of Seismic Motion for the Bound Pile System under Instrumental Accelerogram

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Annotation:   The paper presents the results of studies in earthquake vibrations of concrete piles. The research was accomplished within the framework of studying seismo-isolating properties of the bound pile system. As a mathematical model of the seismic action the authors used the instrumentally recorded accelerogram of the Gazli earthquake (1976). Non-linearity of the pile deformation was taken into account. Eventually the pile horizontal displacements, velocities and accelerations were obtained. For the adopted correlation of pile parameters and the Gazli estimated accelerogram the ratio of the pile and soil maximum horizontal earthquake accelerations is 0.66. In design of earthquake resistant structures in addition to accelerations the other kinematic parameters will be considered. The paper presents the results of studies in some of the abovementioned effects. These effects are illustrated by the example of using the Gazli instrumental accelerogram (1976)
Issue:   
Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.    Gaipov S.K.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Analysis of Current International Approaches and Requirements to Seismic Design and Assessment of Seismic Hazard for NPP Units Considering the Japan’s Fukusima-1 NPP Accident Outcomes

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Annotation:   The current international approaches to seismic design and seismic hazard assessment for nuclear power units have been analyzed taking into account the lessons of the accident at Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan. These approaches will be considered in the revision of the national regulations for earthquake resistance of nuclear power units.
Issue:   
Authors:    Buryak R.Ya.    Letkova N.G.    Ryzhov D.I.    Khamrovskaya L.V.    Shugailo A.P.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


The antiresonance phenomena in seismic microzonation

Key words:   antiresonance effect, inverse layer, technogenic and natural changes in the properties of the soil mass
Annotation:   The
interference of incident and reflected seismic waves in the ground massif near
the day surface is the cause of resonant effects. In the practice of seismic
microzonation (SMZ), a resonant increase in the total seismic intensity is of
particular importance. At the same time, the presence of inverse layers in the
ground layers interference leads to a decrease in the intensity of the total
seismic impact, what is naturally named antiresonance. The article considers
the conditions for the occurrence of antiresonance and evaluates the limits of
its effectiveness. The natural and man-made causes of antiresonance and the
possibility of using it to reduce the intensity of seismic impacts are
particularly noted.
Issue:    #3 2021
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Apology of Seismic Rigidity Method

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Annotation:   The seismic rigidity method, which is one of the first instrumental methods of assessing the influence of soil properties on the parameters of seismic impacts, is currently experiencing contradictory to his attitude. On the one hand, this is the most commonly used method of seismic microzoning (SMZ), on the other hand it is hardly possible to find in SMZ another method that invokes such hard and various criticism. It should to note that these criticisms are not captured in the form of printed articles, but it is constantly occurs in various discussions, private views, etc. that only complicates public discussion. What here is true and must be take into account, and that should to reject? This article is the attempt to understand these interesting and practically important issues. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


АПРОБАЦИЯ ВЛАГОЗАЩИЩЕННОГО МАГНИТОМЕТРА "БОГЭКС 6" СОВМЕСТНО С АЭРОДРОНОМ ПРИ ПОИСКЕ ПОДВОДНЫХ, ПОДЗЕМНЫХ МЕТАЛЛИЧЕСКИХ ОБЪЕКТОВ И СОЗДАНИЯ ЗД КАРТЫ МАГНИТНОГО ПОЛЯ

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Annotation:   В июле-августе 2016 года испытан на полевых испытаниях цезиевый магнитометр «БОГЭКС 6», использующий в качестве основного чувствительного элемента прибора метод лазерной накачки парами цезия в конфигурации Мх. Устройство использовалось для контроля и записи колеблющихся магнитных полей и градиентов при  поиске  известного «археологического сайта» (площадки иссследований). Определена чувствительность устройства.  Составлена карта района поиска. Описан метод работы прибора с максимальной чувствительностью.
Issue:   
Authors:    Gavrilov L.G.    Shvets O.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Reinforcing Steel AH600C (Brand 20G2SFBA) with Increased Performance for Earthquake Engineering

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Annotation:   Given a brief description of features and specifications of reinforcement of the class Aн600C (brand 20G2SFBA). Areas of rational application of reinforcing steel of the class AH600C (brand 20G2SFBA) are considered at compression with casual eccentricity, non-central compression with small and big eccentricity in compressed structures of squared cross-section. Are given analytical dependences in the calculation of structures in the first and second group of limit states.
Issue:   
Authors:    Kodysh E.N.    Sosedov K.E.    Trekin N.N.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Asymptotic Decision of Problem About Movement of the Viscous Elastic Fixed Vertically Located Cylinder in Liquid with the Free Surface Under the Influence of Seismic Waves

Key words:  
Annotation:   The problem about movement of the rigid cylinder keeping vertical position under the influence of running superficial waves in a liquid is considered. The indignation of a falling wave caused by presence of the cylinder which moves is thus considered. Special decomposition on a falling harmonious wave is used. The problem dares an operational method. For a finding of the original the decision, considering that the image denominator represents tabular function, Voltaire’s integrated equation of the first sort which dares a numerical method is used.
Issue:   
Authors:    Hasanova T.J.    Mamedov Sh.?A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Options of Execution of Drives in the Device of Seismo Platform

Key words:   seismic impact, drive, seismic platform, linear electric motor
Annotation:   To provide reciprocating motion or other type of movement in modern seismic platforms, various types of linear actuators are widely used.
At the moment, an urgent task is to create a seismic platform that allows you to reproduce seismic loads in a wide range of vibration frequencies from 0.2 to 100 Hz, which allows you to simulate all the dangerous frequencies of real impacts.
The disadvantage of modern seismic platforms is a limited range of oscillation frequencies due to the complexity of drives, which are to provide long-period and high-frequency oscillations typical of real accelerograms. The correct choice of a drive for implementing reciprocating motion is an important task in designing and manufacturing seismic platforms, both from technical and economic parts of view. These questions are considered in the paper.
The comparative analysis of linear drives is given. Hydraulic, pneumatic, Electromechanical systems of linear displacement, as well as linear electric machines as a separate class of electric machines are considered. The peculiarities of realization of the linear actuators in the design of modern seismic platforms, for example seismic platforms protected by the patent [7]. To implement the method of separation of impacts in modeling seismic vibrations, the authors propose a two-level seismic platform design. Using this approach, the velocity pulse is transmitted through the upper drive, The lower drive will provide high-frequency oscillations. To ensure a wide range of oscillation one of the variants of a system of linear actuators to implement the specifid effcts is a combination of high frequency hydraulic actuator and linear electric machines for the implementation of low-frequency vibrations or residual offets.
The use of this combination of drives will reduce material costs when implementing such a system on a fully hydraulic drive, without losing the accuracy of the tests.

Issue:    №5 2019
Authors:    Lobanov A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Verification of a Method of Calculation of Fragments of Walls on Seismic Loading

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Results of experimental studies of fragments of reinforced concrete walls at action of the static and dynamic loadings modeling nature of seismic influence are given. Comparison of theoretical results of calculation on a distortion of fragments of walls with experimental data is given.


Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Verification Oriented on Concrete Variant of the Flow Theory with Isotropic Hardening

Key words:  
Annotation:   The relations of the modified deformation model for concrete based on the flow theory are presented.In the articlea variant of isotropic hardening function modification is proposed. The calculated data are compared with the results of experiments for simple loading in terms of compression and tension with compression. The errors of approximation of the experimental data by suggested relations are given.
Issue:   
Authors:    Levin V.M.    Shabelnik S.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Probabilistic estimation of reliability values for frame buildings based on the results of certification taking into account tectonic faults

Key words:   certification, risk, frame building, frame-brick building, reliability, reinforcement, repeatability
Annotation:  

With budget funding for two years in 2017-2018, the total certification of the housing stock of multi-apartment buildings was carried out for the first time. A total of 8,171 buildings were entered into the database, of which 1,847 are multi-storey frame buildings of various storeys and

design solutions. It is established that 1628 frame buildings are earthquake-resistant, 59-buildings with the first flexible floor are non-earthquake-resistant and 160-are located in the zone of tectonic

faults on the territory of the city. The hypothesis is accepted that buildings located in the zone of tectonic faults will be destroyed. Under these conditions, quantitative estimates of the failure probability and reliability values for frame buildings of various types were obtained for the first time. The frequency of earthquakes is taken into account according to the current "Map of seismic zoning of the Republic of Kazakhstan". The results of the reliability and failure estimates are used for practical recommendations to reduce the risk and expected losses in possible earthquakes. Total reinforcement of frame buildings with the first flexible floors (59 buildings) is proposed. However, the conditional probability of failure for a group of residential frame buildings will remain non-zero. The method of amplification should be determined based on the results of experimental studies.


Issue:    #3 2021
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerkin S. Aldakhov    Serik D. Aldakhov    Alimzhan B.Ali    
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


Probabilistic estimation of reliability values for large-panel buildings based on the results of certification

Key words:   certification, risk, large-panel building, flexible floor, reliability, repeatability, damage
Annotation:  

Under the agreement with the city authorities, in 2017-2018, for the first time, a full certification of the housing stock of apartment buildings was carried out. 2658 multi-storey large-panel buildings of various storeys from 2 to 9 floors were entered into the database. Based on the results of certification, quantitative estimates of the probability of failure and reliability for large-panel buildings of various types were obtained for the first time. The frequency of earthquakes is taken into account according to the current "Map of seismic zoning of the Republic of Kazakhstan". The reliability value is obtained for the entire group of large-panel buildings. It was revealed that large-panel buildings with the first flexible or brick floor are not earthquake-resistant. The results of the reliability and failure estimates are used for practical recommendations to reduce the risk and expected losses in possible earthquakes. It is proposed to strengthen large-panel buildings with the first flexible or brick floor (33 buildings). The method of strengthening should be determined by special studies.


Issue:   
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerkin S. Aldakhov    Serik D. Aldakhov    Alimzhan B.Ali    
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATION OF RELIABILITY VALUES FOR BRICK BUILDINGS

Key words:   certification, risk, brick building, losses, reliability, repeatability
Annotation:  

In 2017-2018, for the first time in the city of Almaty, a complete certification of the housing stock of apartment buildings was carried out. 1607 multi-storey brick buildings 2-4 floors high were identified. Based on the results of certification, quantitative estimates of the probability of failure and reliability for brick buildings were first obtained. The frequency of earthquakes is taken into account. A priori probabilities of brick buildings failure were calculated by statistical modeling using experimental data obtained during the recording of explosions in MEDEO. The results of reliability and failure estimates will be used for practical recommendations to reduce risk and expected losses in possible earthquakes.


Issue:    №4 2020
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Serik D. Aldakhov    Yerkin S. Aldakhov    Alimzhan B.Ali    
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


Probabilistic estimation of reliability and failure values for monolithic buildings based on the results of certification

Key words:   certification, risk, monolithic building, building with a core of rigidity, reliability, reinforcement, repeatability
Annotation:   In 2017-2018, the total certification of the housing stock of multi-apartment buildings in Almaty was carried out for the first time. According to the results of certification, a total of 8,171 buildings were entered into the database, of which 1,425 are multi-storey monolithic buildings of various storeys and structural types. It was also revealed that 1305 monolithic buildings are earthquake-resistant, 27 – non-earthquake-resistant and 93 are located in the zone of tectonic faults on the territory of the city. Therefore, it is useful to accept the pessimistic hypothesis that buildings located in the zone of tectonic faults will be destroyed. Under these conditions, quantitative estimates of the failure probability and reliability values for monolithic buildings were obtained for the first time. The high earthquake resistance of monolithic buildings has been confirmed. It is established that when taking into account the influence of tectonic faults, the probability of failure of a monolithic building increases by more than 4 times. The frequency of earthquakes is taken into account according to the current "Map of seismic zoning of the Republic of Kazakhstan". Methods of strengthening monolithic buildings should be individual and determined by the results of experimental studies.
Issue:    #4 2021
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerkin S. Aldakhov    Serik D. Aldakhov    Alimzhan B.Ali    
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


Probabilistic Assessment of Reliability and Risk Values by Certification Results

Key words:   certification, risk, building, losses, reliability, repetition
Annotation:  

For the first time in Almaty full passport of apartment stock of multiapartment building was carried out. The structure of the housing stock was revealed with the allocation of groups of buildings according to structural solutions and assessment of their seismic resistance. Based on the results of certification, quantitative estimates of failure probability values for different types of buildings were obtained. Formulas for estimation of quantitative value of seismic risk are obtained. The number of deaths in the estimated zem-shakes was estimated. The results of the assessments will be used for practical recommendations to reduce risk and expected losses in possible earthquakes.


Issue:    №3 2020
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerkin S. Aldakhov    Serik D. Aldakhov    Alimzhan B.Ali    
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


Probability of a High-Speed Military Aircraft Falling at a Nuclear Power Plant and Setting of Design Loads on Building Structures

Key words:   nuclear power plant (NPP), high-speed military aircraft, safety, design basis, unintentional fall, deliberate fall (terrorist attack), building structures, loads.
Annotation:  

The article is devoted to issues related to the probabilistic justification of the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP) when a high-speed military aircraft falls. The random parameters are the recurrence of falls and the direction of the aircraft's trajectory. The conservative value of the recurrence of falls, given in the IAEA documents, was used, which ensures a high degree of NPP safety. The aircraft approach is assumed to be equally probable from either side. The trajectory slope is specified taking into account the IAEA documents and statistics of aviation accidents.

          The aircraft impact load is applied to one of the structures, therefore the impact probability must be determined independently for each of them. It is proportional to the equivalent area of the building structure, depending on its size, shape, position in space and in relation to other structures. Expressions are given for the equivalent areas of structures of various shapes, typical for NPP. It is shown that if the aircraft crash is unintentional (accident), then with the usual dimensions of structures, the probability of an impact in them is less than the value, starting from which, according to Russian standards, it must be taken into account in the design basis of the NPP, i.e. it can be ignored. Dependencies are given for calculating the probability of an aircraft strike in the case of a deliberately organized accident (terrorist attack), in which the aircraft will surely fall on the territory of “Nuclear Island” of the NPP.

          The procedure for setting the design loads on the building structures of a NPP in the case of a deliberate aircraft fall based on the allowed probability of their realization is described. It is shown that this method of setting the loads makes it possible to substantiate their significant reduction, which leads to a reduction in the cost of the NPP while guaranteeing its safety. A probabilistic assessment of structures safety of existing NPP in the event of an aircraft impact is discussed.


Issue:    #6 2020
Authors:    Birbraer Adolf N.    George D. Kostrov   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


PROBABILITY OF AIRCRAFT CRASH ON A NPP LOCATED IN THE VICINITY OF A FLIGHT LINE

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper concerns the problems of determining the probability of an aircraft crash on a nuclear power plant (NPP), located in the vicinity of the flight line. In this case only one preferred direction from which the aircraft approach to NPP is considered. Probability distribution of the aircraft angle of arrival due to aircraft accident statistics and probability of flight line deviation angle are used. The probability distribution law of impacts was determined for various angles between the flight line and the structure normal. Probability of impact to building structures of various shapes (typical for NPPs) was calculated. Example of calculating the probability of an aircraft crash on NPP located in the vicinity of the flight line is given.
Issue:   
Authors:    Chernukha N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Probability of Accidental and Intentional Aircraft Fall on NPP Safety Related Structures

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article is devoted to determination of probability of aircraft fall on nuclear power plant (NPP). Probability distribution of aircraft trajectory angle based on aircraft accidents statistics is used. Equiprobable aircraft approach from any direction is supposed. Probability distribution of impact to a building structure under an arbitrary angle to its normal was determined. Probability of impact to building structures of various shapes (typical for NPPs) was calculated. An example of calculation of the aircraft fall probability on NPP is given. The procedure for determination of the impact probability to building structures at intentional aircraft crash (act of terrorism) was assumed.
Issue:   
Authors:    Birbraer Adolf N.    Lalin V.    Chernukha N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Probability of Falling Aircraft Trajectory Angle and Recurrence of Aircraft Falls

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article is devoted to the determination of the probability characteristics of the parameters that are necessary for the safety analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) when airplane falls on it. Probability distribution (probability density and cumulative function) of an aircraft trajectory angle with the vertical was found via processing of the world statistics of aircraft accidents. Recurrence of aircraft falls within the bounds of standard area was obtained by means of analysis of aircraft accident protocols with airplanes of general aviation in the United States. These data can be used when designing of NPPs in Russia.
Issue:   
Authors:    Birbraer Adolf N.    Lalin V.    Chernukha N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Interaction of a Single Pile with Freezing Heaving Soil

Key words:   pile, frost heave pressure soil, soil shear resistance, soil and pile freezing, pile loading area
Annotation:   The article is devoted to the study of the interaction of a single pile with freezing heaving soil. The calculation of the pile loading area by the normal pressure of frost heaving is proposed. The cases of pile behavior under the influence of frost heave on it depending on the value of the heave pressure, the freezing forces of the frozen soil and the pile, and the adhesion forces of the anchored part of the pile are considered. The calculation of the radius of the cylinder shifting under the action of soil heaving is given.


Issue:    №1 2020
Authors:    Alekseev A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Inclusion of Aircraft Crash into NPP Design Bases and Probabilistic Justification of Loads on Civil Structures and Equipment

Key words:   nuclear power plant, aircraft crash, NPP safety, design bases, frequency of aircraft crash, civil structures, process equipment, failure, non-exceedance probability, act of terrorism
Annotation:    The article is about nuclear power plant (NPP) safety analysis in case of aircraft crash. Specifically, the article considers the following problems: inclusion of aircraft crash into NPP design bases regarding calculation of frequency of an aircraft crash into NPP; aspects of justification of loads on NPP structures, systems and components (SSCs) caused by mechanical action of a primary missile – aircraft fuselage impact. Probabilistic characteristics of such random parameters as frequency of aircraft crash and direction of aircraft trajectory are determined by the results of analysis of world statistics of aviation accidents. Method of calculation of aircraft crash frequency on structures, buildings and NPP as a whole is presented. It takes into account options of accidental and intentional aircraft crashes and various aircraft approach scenarios. 
Procedure of probabilistic justification of loads on civil structures under aircraft impact is described. The loads are specified so as not to exceed allowable value of failure probability of NPP as a whole. Calculation of failure frequency of civil structures of existing NPP is given as an example to show analysis in case of a crash of an aircraft heavier than considered in NPP design. Procedure of probabilistic justification of dynamic loads on NPP equipment in case of aircraft impact is described. Method of floor response spectra (FRS) calculation with the required non-exceedance probability is given. Probabilistically justified loads in case of intentional aircraft impact (act of terrorism) are also considered. Additionally it is presented how internal forces calculated with the use of FRS with the required non-exceedance probability can be summed to provide analysis of subsystems.


Issue:    №1 2020
Authors:    Chernukha N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Influence of Nanotechnogenic Raw Materials on the Drying Properties and Physical and Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Bricks

Key words:   nanotechnologie raw material, water, a clay component, drying, temperature, voltage limit, physical and mechanical properties
Annotation:    When obtaining ceramic bricks only from low-melting clay with the number of plasticity less than 12 without the use of thinners, there is a sharp drop in the limiting shear stress in the temperature range of 20-80oC, which contributes to the appearance of cracks and 
deformation curvatures of products. The use of nanotechnogenic raw materials as a thinner does not contribute to a sharp drop in the ultimate shear stress of the semi-finished brick in the temperature range of 2080oC, eliminates the appearance of cracks and increases the physical and mechanical performance of the finished product. Studies have shown that in order to improve the drying properties of the ceramic mass, the system «nanotechnogenic raw materials-fusible clay-water» is more homogeneous in relation to the system «clay-water». The analysis of the ultimate shear stress in hot forming conditions showed that the function of dependence of plastic strength on molding humidity PM =f (W,t) than the function of dependence of plastic strength on temperature PM =f(t) acquires special importance in this case.




Issue:    №1 2020
Authors:    Abdrakhimov V   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


THE EFFECT OF NORMAL ADHESION ON THE STRENGTH OF A CELLULAR CONCRETE, INCLUDING SEISMIC INPUT

Key words:   cellular concrete, normal adhesion, strength, designing, strength criteria
Annotation:   The article describes research on the influence of normal adhesion on the strength of cellular concrete masonry. The performed tests and test samples are described. The results of the tests carried out to date are also presented. Further measures to study the effect of normal adhesion on the load-bearing capacity of cellular concrete masonry, including seismic impacts, are indicated.


Issue:    №4 2020
Authors:    Vartanov D.N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The influence of the shear connectors ductility on the seismic resistance of composite steel-concrete floors

Key words:   shear connectors, composite floors, composite beams, dowel fastening
Annotation:   According to the existing practice of composite structure design, shear connectors, which provide an interaction of supporting steel beams and reinforced concrete slabs, can be considered as ductile or non-ductile. Taking into account the ductility of connectors allows designer to create an optimal structure from an economic point of view and increase its earthquake resistance. Within the framework of this study, the results of push-testing composite specimen conducted by the authors earlier are considered. The powder-actuated shear connectors had been used for providing interaction between the steel and reinforced concrete parts. In conclusion, the assessment of the ductility and expediency of using powder-actuated shear connectors for earthquake-resistant construction is given.
Issue:    #4 2021
Authors:    Tonkikh G.P.    Chesnokov D.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Influence of Natural and Technogenic Earthquakes on Slip Block Soils and Their Systems Analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper is devoted to the systems analysis of the impact of natural and technogenic earthquakes on slip block soils. Dynamic loads due to industrial blasts, earthquakes as well as during vibration in operation of mechanisms and transport, cause changes in soils’ physical and mechanical properties and in the nature of geological process course. It is experimentally proved that under seismic waves the reduction of soil bearing capacity occurs in structure bases, sometimes reaching the critical state.


Issue:   
Authors:    Kalyukh T.Yu.    Kalyukh Yu.I.    Trofimchuk A.N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Influence of Its Own Weight High-Rise Reinforced Concrete Constructions on Them Seismodynamic Characteristics

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper present solve the problem of effect the normal force from own weight on the bending amplitude of the high construction. Given the results of transverse oscillations of constructions with height of 200 meters in the resonance region and the beating. The load of its own weight changing from zero at top point of the construction to maximum value at the bottom point.

This problem is important from practical side of view, especially with the expansion of the high construction.

Found that when the frequency disturbing force with a frequency of natural oscillations of constructions without regard N observed resonance, and given N the beating.


Issue:   
Authors:    Sharipov S. S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Possibilities of Viscous Interlayers to Protect Structures Against Longitudinal Seismic Vibrations

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper considers issues connected with modeling of plate-type support behavior. Aseismic possibilities of the viscous interlayer to protect structures against longitudinal seismic vibrations are explored. The role of various factors is sequentially revealed, that is density and viscosity of the damping medium, vibration damping with time, specific load on the damping layer. The calculations made have shown that vibration damping occurs rather rapidly with small interlayer thicknesses when taking up high vertical loads.


Issue:   
Authors:    Alishaev M. G.    Batayev D.K-S.    Batdalov M.M.    Mazhiev K. H.    Mazhieva A. H.    Mazhiyev Kh.N.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


The possibilities of using the geophysical methods in calculation of the levels of seismic hazard for large infrastructure objects

Key words:   engineering seismology, seismic hazard, grounds, intensity increment, seismic-wave velocities
Annotation:  

This paper provides the summarized geophysical and engineering-geological data obtained from the project studies and engineering survey of large infrastructure facilities. For illustrative purposes, the paper deals with the analysis of different combinations of engineering-geological and seismic environments with regard to recommendations for general seismic zoning (GSZ) of aerodrome complexes in Siberia and Mongolia. The authors considered the possibility of overall impact of near-surface layers on the project studies and engineering survey of large infrastructure facilities and potential applicability of the geophysical methods in determination of seismic hazard level for the facilities studied. The probability of prediction of the impact of near-surface engineering-geological section on the level of manifestation of seismic properties of certain types of soft sediments and rock formations is based on the study of main parameters of geophysical fields directly within the studied facilities and regions as a whole. The initial data for substantiation of engineering-seismological conditions in monitoring large facilities studied were obtained from the integrated instrumental geophysical measurements (seismic and electrical surveying, microseismic recording) and theoretical calculations. The results of a large volume of geophysical research conducted in the near-surface geological sections of large infrastructure facilities are summarized and presented in the tables of ground conditions in natural and artificial environments. The results presented as variants of seismic design parameters for the summarized engineering-geological sections, seismic properties of typical grounds and parameters of seismic design models of typical sections allow determining seismic hazard level for large civil and industrial facilities. Generalized results of complex geophysical studies, showed the possibility of their use for design and engineering seismological surveys and assessment of the level of seismic danger, in the parameters of seismic impacts, for large industrial and civil facilities in Mongolia and Siberia.

 


Issue:   
Authors:    Serebrennikov S.P.    Dzhurik V.I.    Bryzhak Ye.V.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Possibility of Using a Response Spectra Method for the Calculation of Structures with Mass Dampers of the Seismic Input

Key words:  
Annotation:   The possibility of using a response spectra method (RSM) for the calculation of structures with mass dampers (MD) is considered. It is shown that the Guide Lines SP 14.13330.2014 allows us to take into account the MD behavior and estimate its efficiency. However, it is impossible to optimize damping in the mass damper elements. To take into account the damping RSM, including amendments to the damping and the mode correlation, may be modified. In this case, satisfactory results are obtained when the relative weight of MD less than 0.7 and the construction damping of less than 0.3 (15% of the critical value). For the great mass of the MD optimum damping is more than 20% of the critical, and there is a need to consider the effect of modal damping.
Issue:   
Authors:    Azaev T.D.    Nesterova О.P.    Smirnova L.N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


THE WAVE EFFECT IN THE POST OF VISCO-ELASTIC MIX

Key words:  
Annotation:   A mathematical model of the dynamic behavior for heterogeneous media under vibro-impact loading  using the Kelvin - Voigt viscosity model is developed. Explicit relations to find the dynamic characteristics of the medium such as the dynamic elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity are presented. A detailed analysis is performed to outline an influence of the wave processes in the media on the stress state in the concrete. Simulation results are presented and discussed with experimental ones.
Issue:   
Authors:    Smirnova L.N.    Gusev B.    Saurin V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


High-Strength Concrete with Impregnated Coarse Aggregate for Earthquake-Resistant Components

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper presents the results of long-term studies in production of high-strength concrete with coarse aggregate. The results of physical and mathematical tests of rubble stone density and strength are given. The heavy concrete experimental compositions are developed: the dependences of concrete strength on water-cement ratio, consumption of mixing water, binder and aggregate are obtained. The high-strength concrete tested is characterized by a linear relationship between the concrete compression strength and the concrete mix density.
The studies conducted allow developing a series of remedial compositions for repair and renewal operations in construction.


Issue:   
Authors:    Batayev G.K-S.    Batayev D.K-S.    Batdalov M.M.    Mazhiyev Kh.N.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Calculation of Wave Velocities in Segmented Pipelines with Flexible Joints

Key words:   pipeline, flexible joints, longitudinal waves, inhomogeneous structures, averaged rod velocity
Annotation:   Engineering methods for finding the average (averaged) velocity of propagation of longitudinal waves in pipelines with flexible joints are presented. By accurate analysis of the problem of oscillations of a one dimensional periodically inhomogeneous structure it is shown that the results of engineering approaches for rod velocity are the first or long-wave asymptotic approximation which valid when the period of external influence (the length of the seismic wave) significantly exceeds the size of the periodicity cell of the pipeline (the length of the pipe with a joint). Thus, it is established that when this condition is met, the problem of pipeline dynamics with joints is reduced to a much simpler problem of vibrations of a homogeneous pipeline, the velocity of wave propagation in which is equal to the found average value.
Numerical examples are given that demonstrate a significant (sometimes by an order of magnitude) decreasing of the rod velocity in the presence of flexible joints.

Issue:    №2 2020
Authors:    Israilov M.    Smirnova L.N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Generating Artificial Accelerograms of Local Earthquakes

Key words:  
Annotation:   Approaches to proportioning of buildings and structures, based on direct numerical integration of dynamic equations, continue to be relevant. For this purpose realistic or artificial accelerograms are used. Probabilistic methods of calculation are based on generation of artificial accelerograms as random-process realizations. There is proposed method of generation of artificial accelerograms, based on representation of correlation function as sum of cosine-exponential summands. Approximation parameters are defined on the basis of least squares method through the use of Curve Fitting Toolbox CKM MATLAB package. Artificial accelerograms are generated by utilizing design formula of autoregression (moving average). Accuracy of generation is illustrated by computation of spectral curves. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Yerzhanov S.Е.    Vladimir A. Lapin   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Main Centers of the Russian Federation in Earthquake Engineering And Complex Seismic Safety Regions

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The article presents the activities of the Earthquake Engineering Research Center TsNIISK of «JS Construction Scientific & Research Center» in Earthquake Engineering. The examples of experimental studies of seismic resistance of structures, fragments and full-scale buildings, facade systems, seismic isolation systems and equipment were presented.


Issue:   
Authors:    Smirnov V. I.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Town-planning approach to the reconstruction of residential development of the first panel series 1-335c in the seismic region

Key words:  
Annotation:   Residential buildings of the first panel series 1-335c have a number of design features that are unfavorable in terms of seismic resistance and durability. The enhancement of seismic stability of the housing stock of the 1960-1970 series turned into a serious social and economic problem of the Baikal region.
Issue:   
Authors:    Berzhinsky Yu.A.    Berzhinskaya L.P.    Salandayeva O.I.    Kiselev D.V.    Pavlova T.F.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety in city planning   


Grounds as a Factor of Seismic Safety for the Territories of the South of East Siberia

Key words:   seismicity, earthquake, engineering and geological survey, geological structure, fault, tectonics, building, foundation
Annotation:   The article presents the results of studies conducted in the fall of 2008 in the southern part of Lake Baikal, where the Kultuk earthquake occurred. The impact of the earthquake on rocks and foundations of social and public buildings (hospitals, schools, etc.) in Slyudyanka, pos. Kultuk and in other settlements. A large amount of factual material on soil reinforcement by cementation was obtained during the demolition of residential buildings in the city of Irkutsk. It was established that the destruction of the foundations of buildings and structures, which occurred as a result of the Kultuk earthquake in the Slyudyansky region, is due to: a) in some cases, the almost total absence of a foundation cushion; b) a combination of rocky and dispersed soils at the base of the foundation that caused the heterogeneity of the bearing layer, which led to the destruction of the building; c) heterogeneity of the composition, state and properties of dispersed soils at the base of the foundations, when uneven deformation (compression) of the soil contributed to the emergence of a different amplitude system of oscillations of the foundation and walls of buildings during an earthquake.
Issue:    №1 2019
Authors:    Akulov N.I.    Berzhinsky Yu.A.    Akulova V.V.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Cylinder Motion in the Elastic Medium after Wave Passage

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper considers a two-dimensional problem on the round-shaped structure movement in the elastic medium after wave passing. The boundary conditions of the problem are described.
The special cases are computed and basing on the results the plots are constructed, by means of which the conclusions from the problem set are made.


Issue:   
Authors:    Gadzhiyev O.M.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Soil degradation during seismic events in terms of primary wave velocities

Key words:  
Annotation:   The author suggests the approach to account for the degradation of the soil properties in terms of primary wave velocities.The proposed approach is based on the separation of shear and volume deformations, each of them with the corresponding elasticity module. For shear deformations the degradation estimates are based on the lab tests results obtained for the soil samples. For volume deformations the absence of degradation in terms of the elasticity module is assumed. Primary waves combine shear and volume deformations. As a result, there is some degradation in the primary wave velocity though different from that for the shear wave velocities. The proposed approach enables estimates of the primary wave velocities (in addition to the shear wave velocities) to be used in the soilstructure systems models.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Damping in Modal Method. Part III: Paradox with Cut-Off Modal Damping

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Common opinion is that one can provide conservative results of dynamic analysis by decreasing modal damping; as such a decrease leads to the increase of response values. The author has shown that it is not always true: sometimes the “cut-off” of modal damping coefficient leads to the decrease of response. Previously this effect was demonstrated in terms of the transfer functions in the frequency domain. Here the same effect is demonstrated in standard dynamic analysis. 


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Damping In Modal And Direct Methods: Effect Of Artificial Cut-Off Of Coefficients

Key words:  
Annotation:   The author checks the concept of “cutting” modal damping coefficients after reaching certain threshold levels. This procedure cannot help to overcome the limitations of the modal approach.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Damping in Modal and Direct Methods. Part II: Rayleigh Structural Damping Instead of the Material One

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The author checks the effect of substitution of structural material damping by the Rayleigh one. “Soil” damping stays viscous. The results for material and Raleigh damping are close to each other and far from modal results. As a result, limitations in the modal approach can be shown not only be comparison with “material damping” results obtained in the frequency domain, but also by comparison with “Raleigh damping” results obtained in the time domain.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Wooden Designs in Aseismic Construction of Buildings and Constructions (Domestic and Foreign Experience)

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The review of various technologies of construction of the wooden buildings which are widely applied as in domestic, and foreign practice of construction in seismically active areas taking into account complex researches of properties of the designs made of wood is provided in article.


Issue:   
Authors:    Ivanova Zh.V.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Deformation Properties of Masonry as a Piecewise Homogeneous Medium for Elastoplastic Strain Analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper sets forth the main principles of determining the masonry deformation properties as a mixed modular medium consisting of heterogeneous materials for the purposes of discrete modeling. The formulas are proposed to define the values of deformation characteristics of the masonry materials with account of the stress and strain state specific character under loading.


Issue:   
Authors:    Kabantsev O.V.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Деформирование железобетонных плит на податливых опорах при динамических воздействиях.

Key words:  
Annotation:   During the last years, civil and industrial buildings and structures are exposed more frequently to dynamic pressure caused by emergencies. One of the ways to improve the resistance of structures exposed to dynamic loads of great intensive activities is the use of yielding supports. This article presents the results of research of reinforced concrete slabs surround yielding supported. Yielding supports are presented in the form of wrinkle ring inserts, which are characterized by three phases of deformation: elastic, elastoplastic, and elastoplastic with hardening. In given researches the behaviour of the slab is analysed in an elastic phase, the behaviour of the supports - in elastoplastic and elastoplastic with hardening phases. The completed research has allowed to evaluate the influence of rigidity of yielding supports in the plastic stage of deformation. The findings also allowed to explain the nature of distribution of rigidities along the perimeter of the slab and the level of deformations of yielding supports in the transitionary point in the stage of plastic deformations on the behaviour of the concrete slabs. According to the results of the performed calculations, the physical and mechanical parameters of supports that allow to get the maximum effect were revealed. This effect is associated with a reduction in the stress-strain state parameters of structures.
Issue:   
Authors:    Kumpyak O    Galyautdinov Z.R.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Diagnostics and improving the safety of the railway bridge on the Uchkurgan-Tashkomur railway line on PC 17 + 494

Key words:   safety of structures, railway bridge, railway transport, technical condition, static characteristics, static test, dynamic test, seismic receiver, dynamic coefficient
Annotation:   The article describes and discusses in detail the process of inspection and testing of the railway bridge on the Uchkurgan – Tashkomur stage km 17+494, carried out by specialists of the Kyrgyz State University of Construction, Transport and Architecture (KSUCTA) on the basis of the contract  with  the Mostootryad  SE NK Kyrgyz railway for the purpose of assessing the technical state of pavement design, evaluation of its conformity to requirements of standard documentation and preparation of technical findings with conclusions and suggestions for further exploitation of the bridge and increasing its operational safety.
Issue:   
Authors:    Apsemetov M.Ch.    Ryskulbek A. Zhumabaev    Kurmanbek uulu Nurlan    Altynbek E. Aidaraliev   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Diagnosis of Latent Defects Earthquake Resistant Structures on the Change of the Frequency Spectrum

Key words:  
Annotation:   a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:608:"

Outlines the methods of diagnostics of latent defects maintained building objects by a change from the design of their characteristics if the vibration excited by shock, deterministic and random or harmonic effects. Depreciation and residual strength parameters set against the squares of the frequencies on the borders of the considered time interval. Features of vibration diagnostics of construction of objects, – a large mass, large dimensions, deformation plasti­city of the grounds of the complexity of vibration loading, – require the use of special means of correction of recorded information.

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Issue:   
Authors:    Kotlyarevskiy V.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Object Dynamics of the Seismic Isolation Site: Analogous Building

Key words:   accelerogramm, dynamics, vibration tests, safety.
Annotation:   The results of reference building (analogous building) research at the seismic isolation site is presented in the study. A system of cross-strips foundations, seismic insulating kinematic foundations and pillars with fluoroplastic gaskets were utilized in building construction. There are stations of engineering seismological measurement services installed on the buildings. It is analyzed the experimental studies for analogous building performed in the late 80s. The results are compared with the earthquake instrumental records happened on August 16, 2014. According to the seismological measurement services the building oscillation period is 0.40 sec, that fully corresponds to data vibration test with a minimum load of unbalances - 0.39-0.42 sec. It has been established that the floor distortions decrease with building height. Mainly the building is deformed by shear scheme. Taking into account the experimental data, a piecewise linear diagram of the deformation of a single-mass dynamic model of a building is constructed.


Issue:    №3 2019
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerzhanov S.Е.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Dynamics of the Object of Polygon of Seismic Isolation: Building at Kinematic Foundations

Key words:   seismic isolation, vibration tests, accelerogram, safety
Annotation:   To study the seismic insulating properties of buildings in Almaty there is a special polygon. It includes buildings with conventional strip foundations with a system of cross-belts, seismic kinematic and supports with PTFE gaskets. The buildings are equipped with stations of engineering and seismometric service. The results of experimental studies at home on KF, performed in the late 80-ies. The results are compared with the instrumental records of the earthquakes of May 31, 2012 and August 16, 2014. The period of maximum spectrum coincides with the resonance in the initial stages of vibration tests-0.45-0.51 seconds. It is established that floor distortions of floors of the building decrease with height. With the use of a one-mass calculation scheme, taking into account the nonlinear deformation diagram, the dynamic model of the building is calculated for the impact in the form of accelerograms of the specified earthquake at the Foundation level.
Issue:    №2 2019
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerzhanov S.Е.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Dynamics of the Object of Polygon of Seismic Isolation: Building with Supports on Fluoroplastic Gaskets

Key words:   seismic isolation, vibration tests, accelerogram, safety, PTFE elements.
Annotation:   To study the seismic insulating properties of buildings in Almaty there is a special polygon. It includes buildings with conventional strip foundations with a system of cross-belts, seismic kinematic and supports with PTFE gaskets. The buildings are equipped with stations of engineering and seismometric service (seismic stations 20,21,22). The results of experimental studies of the house on fluoroplastic gaskets, performed in the late 80s, are analyzed. The results are compared with the instrumental records of the earthquakes of May 31, 2012 and August 16, 2014. The period of maximum spectrum coincides with the resonance in the initial stages of vibration tests-0.44-0.47 seconds. Using a single-mass calculation scheme taking into account the presence of dry friction forces, the dynamic model of the building was calculated for the impact of an unsteady random process. The median acceleration values at the base correspond to the “Seismic Zoning Map of the Republic of Kazakhstan” for earthquakes with a frequency of 475 years and 2475 years. Probabilistic estimates of displacement values at the support level are obtained.
Issue:    №6 2019
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerzhanov S.Е.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Dynamics of Rigid Plasticity System with Two Degrees of Freedom at Impulse Loading

Key words:  
Annotation:  

In dynamic process the behavior of construction depends on their surface of fluidity. In article analytical decisions for a rigid plasticity system with two degrees of freedom in case of dynamic problem definition when external influence has impulsive character (initial
speed of a system is set) are received and analysed. The mathematical model of a rigid plasticity system dynamic behavior at account and not accounting of interaction projections of plastic reactions effect are provided in article. The interrelation between these approaches is found. An assessment of construction operability is given and also limit cases of the received decision are considered. Comparison with the simplified problem definition upon transition from elliptic to rectangular curve fluidity is carried separately out.


Issue:    №6 2018
Authors:    Rutman Yu.    Ostrovskaya N.    Kobelev E.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   

read more

In dynamic process the behavior of construction depends on their surface of fluidity. In article analytical decisions for a rigid plasticity system with two degrees of freedom in case of dynamic problem definition when external influence has impulsive character (initial
speed of a system is set) are received and analysed. The mathematical model of a rigid plasticity system dynamic behavior at account and not accounting of interaction projections of plastic reactions effect are provided in article. The interrelation between these approaches is found. An assessment of construction operability is given and also limit cases of the received decision are considered. Comparison with the simplified problem definition upon transition from elliptic to rectangular curve fluidity is carried separately out.


Dynamic Tests of the Administrative Building with a Stationary Seismic Isolation System in Irkutsk

Key words:   method of standing waves, dynamic testing of buildings, dynamic characteristics of buildings, rubber-metal supports, seismic isolation, seismic stability of buildings
Annotation:   The paper presents the results of dynamic tests of the administrative building with a stationary seismic isolation system on rubber-metal supports in Irkutsk by the method of standing waves. The dynamic characteristics of the building (periods, frequencies, amplitudes, phases of oscillations) for different forms of natural oscillations are determined. The comparison of the frequencies of Building 2 obtained by direct method with the calculated ones obtained at the design stage is carried out. The analysis of the influence of rubber-metal supports on the natural oscillations of Building 2 is carried out. The estimation of seismic stability of the building relative to the probable seismic loads is given.

Issue:    №6 2019
Authors:    Khoroshavin Ye.A.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Dynamic Tests of Masonry Samples, Reinforced by Coal-Fiber Cloth

Key words:  
Annotation:  

This article provides the results of the experimental researches/tests of fragments of brick walls of buildings in real size, reinforced by coal-fiber cloth, in response to dynamic loads, simulating seismic impact of the earthquake intensity 7 to 9 points on a scale МSK-64. The test procedure is described. The test instrumentation is described. The main conclusions based on the results of the tests are provided.


Issue:   
Authors:    Gasiyev A.A.    Granovsky A.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Dynamic Tests of Fragment Building With Using Constructional Decision of Walls With Aerocrete Blocks

Key words:  
Annotation:  

In the article demonstrated the results of experimental studies of seismic ­stability of building fragment with walls with aerocrete blocks. All works were conducted on base of EERC TsNIISK named after V.A. Kucherenko of «Joint Stock Company – Research Center of Construction».


Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.    Petrosyan A.E.    Petryashev N.O.    Petryashev S.O.    Polyakov V.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Dynamic Analysis of Systems with a Finite Number of Degrees of Freedom Considering Different Types of Physical Nonlinearity

Key words:  
Annotation:   Some computational methods for nonlinear systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom are considered. These methods are mainly applied to the analysis of systems with broken-line characteristics and lock-out braces. Two computational problems are considered: the vibration isolated system with a nonlinear characteristic and the system with a lock-out brace. Solutions of these problems are obtained by the method based on solution of integral equations close to the motion equations. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Chernov Yu.T.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The building for shaky ground

Key words:  
Annotation:   Памяти Якова Моисеевича Айзенберга
22 апреля 2018 года исполнился год, как ушел из жизни Яков Моисеевич Айзенберг, доктор технических
наук, профессор, Заслуженный деятель науки РФ, Заслуженный строитель РФ, почетный академик РААСН,
научный руководитель ЦИСС ЦНИИСК им. В.А. Кучеренко АО «НИЦ «Строительство», главный редактор
журнала «Сейсмостойкое строительство. Безопасность сооружений».
В память о выдающемся ученом, многолетнем бессменном главном редакторе нашего журнала, редкол-
легией было принято решение о ретроспективе публикаций Я.М. Айзенберга.
Сегодня мы предлагаем Вашему вниманию статью Якова Моисеевича «Дом для зыбкой тверди», опубли-
кованную в журнале «Наука и жизнь» (№ 8, 1989 год).
Issue:   
Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.   
Rubric:     Past publications   


RASK System: Retrofited Braced Frames for Improvement of Seismic Performance

Key words:  
Annotation:   RASK system (braced frame) is intended for the construction of frame residential, public and industrial high-rise buildings up to 12 floors and is made of precast-monolithic reinforced concrete structures. The columns and beams are precast elements made of reinforced concrete. Precast reinforced concrete Cored slabs are used as floor structures. Diaphragms can be implemented as monolithic and precast concrete. Exterior and interior walls are constructed of small piece material or largesize elements. The RASK system is aimed either for conventional or seismic hazard areas, which is particularly important for areas of the Kemerovo region.
Issue:   
Authors:    Perfilev A.P.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Enveloped Seismic Excitation for Similar Buildings in Different Soil and Seismic Environments: from six analyses to two analyses. Part I. Response Spectra in the Building

Key words:  
Annotation:  

One often has to analyze similar structures in different soil and seismic environments. Some time ago the author suggested enveloping seismic responses at the rigid basements in order to analyses the upper structure only once using «enveloped» excitation. However, it turned out that correlation between different components of base motion is lost during the synthesis of «enveloped» components matching «enveloped» spectra. This effect forced to move from the simultaneous application of all six «enveloped» components to the application of these components one by one. Thus, one has to perform six analyses instead of a single one – substantial loss of resources. Here the author suggests performing only two analyses instead of six ones, with simultaneous application of those components which can be consisted statistically independent: three translational components and separately three rotational components. The results should be added to each other, which mean the full correlation. 


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Enveloped Seismic Excitation for Similar Buildings in Different Soil and Seismic Environments: from Six Analyses to Two Analyses. Part II. Internal Forces in the Structure

Key words:  
Annotation:  

One often has to analyze similar structures in different soil and seismic environments. Some time ago the author suggested enveloping seismic responses at the rigid basement in order to analyze the upper structure only once using «enveloped» excitation. However, it turned out that correlation between different components of base motion is lost during the synthesis of «enveloped» components matching «enveloped» spectra. This effect forced to move from the simultaneous application of all six «enveloped» components to the application of these components one by one. Thus, one has to perform six analyses instead of a single one – substantial loss of resources. Here the author suggests performing only two analyses instead of six ones, with simultaneous application of those components which can be considered statistically independent: three translational components and separately three rotational components. The results should be added to each other, which mean the full correlation. In the first part of this paper the author proved the suggested approach for in-structure response spectra. In the second part the author applies the same approach to the analysis of the internal forces in the structure.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Optimum Selection Problems of the Physical and Geometrical Structure for Laminated Heterogeneous Composite Components under Elastic Wave Oblique Incidence. Part III

Key words:  
Annotation:   The variation statements of seismological inverse problems on the basis of methods of mathematical and computer modeling are investigated. The investigations are aimed at studying new effects, new opportunities to increase reliability, strength, earthquake resistance, lifetime of structures in complex technical systems under the influence of unfavorable environmental factors. The perspective ways under study are connected with selection of the qualitative information about important regularities that characterize interaction of elastic seismic waves with components of various buildings, structures and pipeline systems.
The results obtained and the regularities identified can be used to solve a wide range of problems connected with development and application of effective seismic protection systems (seismic protective structurally heterogeneous screens, seismic protective heterogeneous bases and foundations of various buildings and structures, seismic protection screening  belts, etc.), as well as solving problems of optimal selection of  heterogeneity distribution in components of various enclosures with the aim to ensure their higher reliability, strength, seismic stability under unfavorable environmental factors.
Issue:   
Authors:    Gusev Ye.L.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Laws of Shear Interaction of Structures with Soil and Their Implementation in Applied Problems of Seismic-Resistance of Structures

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The existence of contact layer of soil near the surface of contact of a rigid belt with soil is shown by the solution of one-dimensional problem of interaction of the belt with soil half-space. Viscous-elastic law of strain is taken as a non-linear one, which accounts a structural destruction of soil under shear. On the boundary of contact the condition of zero equality of relative displacement is given; shear displacement of soil and belt are equal. Dependences of tangent stresses on shear strains are determined on the contact layer, their quality coincidence with the change of forces of interaction (friction) is shown; it is determined on the basis of experiments on interaction of underground structures with soil.


Issue:   
Authors:    Bakhodirov A.A.    Sultanov K.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Notes on Development of the Seismic Intensity Scale

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The present notes are extension of the subject discussed in our journal for the recent years. Some essential drawbacks of existing seismic intensity scales are presented. The ways of developing the methods to determine the earthquake effect parameters required to design structures to be erected in earthquake-prone areas are discussed. The seismologists’ proposals dealing with modification of seismic scales are considered.


Issue:   
Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Remarks, Proposals and Comments to the Code 14.13330.2012 «Construction in Seismic Areas. Updated Version of SNiP II-7-81*»

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper presents the basic remarks, proposals and comments which have been submitted by experts of the research, design and educational organizations for modification and improvement of provisions of the Code 14.13330.2011 «Construction in Seismic Areas. Updated Version of SNiP II-7-81 *». The recommendations on harmonization of the Code with the Eurocode 8 «Design of earthquake-resistant structures» are additionally taken into account.


Issue:   
Authors:    Smirnov V. I.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Землетрясение знает о себе все. Сейсмолог Татьяна Раутиан – о том, почему сложно предсказывать стихийные бедствия

Key words:  
Annotation:   Почему наука так и не научилась предсказывать землетрясения, как реагирует земля на ядерные взрывы и в чем был не прав академик Андрей Сахаров? Обо всем этом «Огоньку» рассказала Татьяна Раутиан, проработавшая более 40 лет в составе крупнейшей в СССР сейсмологической экспедиции на Памире, единственная россиянка, награжденная медалью Рида американского Сейсмологического общества, которую вручают «великим сейсмологам мира». Памирская Комплексная сейсмологическая экспедиция (КСЭ) Института физики Земли АН СССР была легендарной – она впервые в нашей стране начала систематически изучать сейсмологические явления и искать причины землетрясений, их предвестники и в целом познавать природу этой катастрофы. Работа ученых началась в 1950 году в маленьком поселке Гарм в предгорьях Памира и закончилась лишь спустя четыре десятилетия, в 1992 году, в связи с гражданской войной в Таджикистане. Четверть века тишины Начиналась экспедиция с одиночной станции, которая фиксировала колебания Земли способами, принятыми в канун Первой мировой войны. Спустя четыре десятка лет, когда сворачивали работу, это была уже мощная разветвленная сеть сейсмостанций, которые вели сплошную запись землетрясений, с громадным штатом, бюджетом и хозяйством. На основе полученных данных ученые делали самые разные открытия, которые касались природных катаклизмов, строения Земли и... ядерных взрывов. Ошибки нет: экспедиция много лет сотрудничала с Министерством обороны СССР, выполняя секретные работы по определению эпицентров ядерных взрывов по всему миру. Татьяна Глебовна Раутиан проработала в составе Комплексной сейсмологической экспедиции Гарма много лет – и как исследователь, и как руководитель (заместитель начальника по науке). После распада СССР ее пригласили в Ламонтскую геофизическую обсерваторию Колумбийского университета в США. Сейчас она в Москве – изучает архивы, издает семейный альманах и... учится играть на фортепиано. Но говорим мы с ней, понятно, о главном в ее жизни – о сейсмологии.
Issue:   
Authors:    Kudriavtseva E.V.   
Rubric:     News / Events   


Signs of the "one-mode" response forces in linear spectral method: comparison of conventional and standard approaches

Key words:   linear-spectral seismic analysis of structures, correlation coefficients, one-mode responses
Annotation:  

Two variants of linear-spectral method (LSM) are compared in the paper: the conventional one, prescribed in several foreign Standards, and "Standard" one prescribed in the Russian Standard SP 14.13330. "One-component one-mode" responses, obtained by static analysis in the conventional LSM are combined twice: first for different modes but for each single excitation component, then for different excitation components. In the "standard" alternative LSM variant first one chooses the "most dangerous" direction of the one-component excitation for each mode, then one obtains the "one-mode" response for this excitation, and finally these responses are combined. In both cases the combination is performed using the complete quadratic combination (CQC) rule, accounting for the correlation between one-mode responses. "Standard" variant leaves some uncertainty: the "dangerous" direction can be changed for the opposite one. Such a change leads to the sign change in the one-mode response. This is of no importance for the non-correlated responses, which are combined using the SRSS rule. However, for the correlated responses as it is shown in the paper using sample problem the uncertainty in the signs can lead to the incorrect results, and the error can be significant. 


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Changes to the 2nd Edition of the Document for Rules 14.13330.2011 «Construction in Seismic Areas. Updated Version of SNiP II-7-81*»

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper presents the basic changes to the 2nd edition of the Document for Rules 14.13330.2011 «Construction in Seismic Areas. The Updated Version of SNiP II-7-81*». The changes and additions have been formulated on the basis of expert proposals of the research, design and educational organizations. Harmonization of the Document for Rules with the Eurocode 8 «Design of earthquake-resistant structures» is executed.
Issue:   
Authors:    Smirnov V. I.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Concrete Characteristics Changes Under Low-Cycle Loading

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Annotation:  

The article presents the results of experimental and analytical investigations of ultra-low cycle loading with varying number of cycles, stress level and stress ratio influence on concrete standard structural properties. The considerable qualitative transformation of the concrete stress-strain behavior, nonidentity of strength-rigidity changes and statistical regularities are established.


Issue:   
Authors:    Pinus B.I.    Sozonov P.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Studying the dynamics of seismically isolated buildings with the aid of the stations of engineering seismometric service

Key words:  
Annotation:   In KazNIISA JSC studies of seismic isolating properties of buildings equipped with special earthquake protection systems are carried out at the special field test site. Displacement, velocity and acceleration measuring sensors were installed on three houses constructed with the same above-foundation part (9-storey large-panel houses of series 158), but with different foundations: conventional strip foundations with the system of crossstrips, seismically isolating kinematic foundations and supports with PTFE gaskets. On these buildings instrumental records of the earthquake were received in the transverse direction on August 16, 2014. The resulting accelerograms were used to construct spectral curves ?. The possible effect of seismic isolation, as well as the influence of foundation constructions on the dynamics of buildings with foundations of conventional type and seismically isolated ones is assessed.
Issue:   
Authors:    Yerzhanov S.Е.    Vladimir A. Lapin    Daugavet V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Engineering Methods of Designing Earthquake Resistant Structures with Preset Ductility Category Considering Eurocode-8 Provisions

Key words:  
Annotation:   The authors analyze regulatory requirements in codes of different European countries, USA, CIS, Canada etc. on ensuring safety of buildings and structures at earthquakes. The methodology based on non-elastic response spectra of buildings and structures allowing taking into account the non-linear behavior of structures is proposed in elaboration of Eurocode 8 requirements. The paper provides the calculation examples of non-linear displacements of framed and frameless concrete buildings.
Issue:   
Authors:    Babik K.N.    Maryenkov N.G.    Nemchinov Yu.I.    Khavkin A.K.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №3 2018
Authors:    Kioji Suehiro   
Rubric:     Past publications   


Инженерная сейсмология. Лекция 1.

Key words:  
Annotation:   В 1935 году в издательстве «Экономическая жизнь» вышла в свет книга японского ученого, профессора Киоджи Сюэхиро «Инженерная сейсмология». В предисловии к русскому переводу профессор В.О. Цшохер и инженер В.А. Быховский писали: «Появление книги в русском переводе должно рассматриваться как явление чрезвычайной важности в области изучения сейсмических сил и можно только пожалеть, что она не выпущена раньше». Сегодня эта замечательная книга стала библиографической редкостью. В стремлении исправить это положение редакция журнала приняла решение опубликовать на страницах журнала три лекции (три части книги), и переиздать этот выдающийся труд отдельным изданием.

Authors:    Kioji Suehiro   
Rubric:     Past publications   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №5 2018
Authors:    Kioji Suehiro   
Rubric:     Past publications   


Инженерная сейсмология. Лекция 2

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Annotation:   Отличительные признаки основных данных, требуемых инженерами и геофизиками, изложены в этой лекции. Обычные типы сейсмографов совершенно непригодны для записи колебаний сильных землетрясений непосредственно в эпицентральной зоне, ибо они должны быть также достаточно чувствительными для записи отдаленных колебаний. В этой лекции поставлена проблема сейсмографа и акселерографа для измерения «мощных движений», что обеспечит инженерам наилучшие возможности в получении ценных данных. На основе наблюдений и изучения землетрясения 1923 г. в Токио доктор Сюэхиро пришел к заключению, что в настоящее время при постройке сооружений следует руководствоваться величиной ускорения 0,15 g, несмотря на то, что имелось обилие фактов, указывающих на еще большие ускорения, встречавшиеся в эпицентральной зоне. Однако, так как даже в сейсмических странах любое сооружение подвергается вероятно разрушительным землетрясениям только раз или два раза за время своего существования, вопросы экономии приобретают большое значение. Несмотря на то, что землетрясение 1923 г. было наиболее сильным из всех отмеченных историей землетрясений, сооружения, спроектированные при учете сейсмического коэфициента 0,1 g оказались вполне сейсмостойкими. Лекция содержит сравнительные иллюстрации одновременных записей вибрографов в зданиях и в прилегающем грунте. Анализатор сейсмических колебаний, работающий по принципу селекции резонанса, как в измерителе частоты Hartmann’a, изобретен доктором Сюэхиро. Записи, получаемые его прибором, обнаруживают преобладающие периоды колебаний, свойственные исследуемой местности.

Authors:    Kioji Suehiro   
Rubric:     Past publications   


Engeneering seismology. Lecture 3

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Annotation:   Содержание: В этой лекции рассматривается поведение колеблющихся зданий и взаимодействие между их фундаментами и грунтом. Д-р Сюэхиро дает результаты действительных наблюдений над зданиями различных типов конструкции и особо отмечает характерные черты некоторых зданий, которыми объясняется причина их стойкости при большом землетрясении в 1923 г. Он также выясняет причину разрушения некоторых зданий.
Было установлено, что жесткое здание колеблется таким же образом, как и прилегающий грунт и нечувствительно к колебаниям грунта весьма коротких периодов, порядка 0,1 сек. В менее жестких зданиях колебания усложнены второстепенными вибрациями и такие здания менее подвержены разрушению. Следовательно, их собственное свободное колебание преобладало во время землетрясений с нерегулярными движениями. 
Деревянные фахверковые здания, тщательно построенные, и каркасно-стальные сооружения с каменным заполнением обнаружили высокие сейсмостойкие качества. Упругость грунта может более или менее ослабить разрушительное действие сильного землетрясения на каменные сооружения, имеющие относительно большой вес. В Токио здания с монолитной фундаментной плитой и без свай, расположенные на слабом, рыхлом, но уплотненном грунте, выдерживали толчки лучше, нежели здания с особыми свайными основаниями. Изучения подземных сейсмических движений приводят к выводу, что принцип углубления в грунт основания высокого здания с большим периодом собственного колебания не так выгоден, как это представляют себе некоторые инженеры. Для низких же зданий с коротким периодом собственных колебаний, наоборот, преимущества глубоких оснований бесспорны.
Issue:    №1 2019
Authors:    Editor   
Rubric:     Past publications   


Innovative Systems Providing Earthquake Safety of Structures and Population, Engineering and Economic Aspects

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Annotation:   In the article a program of seismic design and construction of civil, industrial, including nuclear industry structures and problems of the population security in seismic hazardous areas are presented. Innovation technologies for seismic safety providing, are presented, as well. The necessity of general seismic Russian Federation zonation maps, for engineering design modification is discussed and is supported as an important part of the general program. The social and economic importance and the scale of this Program (Platform) make obvious the necessity of its Federal Budget financial support.
Issue:   
Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.    Smirnov V. I.   
Rubric:     Conferences. Symposia. Meetings   


Nanotehnologija the use of Aluminium-containing Raw Materials in the Petrochemical Industry to Produce High -performance Brick

Key words:   ceramic brick, inter- shale clay, spent catalyst, nanotechnologie raw materials
Annotation:   The reduction in the reserves of traditional natural raw materials makes us look for new ways to replace it with different types of waste. At the same time, the costs of exploration, construction and operation of quarries are excluded, and significant land plots are exempt from the impact of negative anthropogenic factors. The experience of advanced foreign countries has shown the technical feasibility of this direction and its application as a tool for protecting the natural environment from pollution. On the basis of inter-shale clay and high-alumina nanotehnologija raw materials petrochemical spent catalyst IM-2201 NovoKuibyshev petrochemical plant derived ceramic brick with high physicalmechanical properties without the use of traditional natural materials. Using nanotechnogenic petrochemicals – spent catalyst IM-2201, containing more than 70% A12O3, a ceramic brick was obtained that corresponds to the M200 brand. It is possible to build load-bearing walls of the lower floors of high-rise buildings (15 floors or more) from M200 ceramic bricks. Innovative proposals for the use of industrial waste: interslant clay and spent catalyst in the production of high-strength ceramic earthquake-resistant bricks with high strength and frost resistance have been developed. The absolute advantage of using multi-tonnage waste of the spent IM-2201 catalyst and inter-shale clay for the waste of oil shale is 
the unloading of the environmental situation.

Issue:    №2 2020
Authors:    Abdrakhimov V    Аbdraкhimova Elena S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


To the Question of usage of Fractional Values of Seismic Intensity and Ground Acceleration

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Annotation:   "The paper discusses the results of a comparison of calculation of seismic intensity based on the integer and fractional values of initial seismicity in detailed seismic zoning (DSZ) and seismic microzonation (SMZ), as well as design of corresponding seismic hazard maps in values of peak ground acceleration (PGA). It is shown that, despite the fact that SMZ maps were designed using different approaches (with their own features), results are generally the same. And as always — non formal.
Issue:   
Authors:    Dzeranov B.V.    Zaalishvili V.B.    Mel’kov D.A.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Standing Wave Method Usage for Analisys of Dynamic Characteristics of High-Rise Buildings by Example of 40-Storey Complex «Dirigible», Moscow

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Annotation:   At present time according to development of high-rise house-building dynamic monitoring systems of such objects obtain actuality. Standing waves method, developed in Geophysical Survey of SB RAS, allows allocate forms of natural vibration with high accuracy. In this paper experience of usage standing waves method for determination of real dynamic features of highrise 40-storey complex «Dirigible» in Moscow is presented. Comparison of real standing waves with theoretical calculations of mathematical models, created in Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, was done.
Issue:   
Authors:    Bakh A.A.    Krasnikov A.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Use of Nonexplosive Sources of Large Power With Seismic Microzoning

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In the article is carried out the analysis of practical-scientific works on seismic microzoning (SMZ). In spite of a change in the level of seismic danger from the time of their conducting [Building Codes II-7-81, 1982, 2000], the urgency of results did not decrease. The special action features of powerful nonexplosive sources, we have examined in a number of works, were used with SMZ of territories of Rustavi (1982), Gori (1983), Tkibuli (1985), Tbilisi (1989), Kutaisi (1990), etc.

With SMZ of Rustavi and Gori territories were used the surface pulse gas-dynamic source SI-32; with SMZ of Tkibuli territory — seismic vibrator SV-10/100; with SMZ of Tbilisi (1989), Kutaisi (1990) territories and individual sections of Big Sochi (1991) — seismic vibrator SV-10/100. With SMZ of Tbilisi and Big Sochi is for the first time used the simplified method, which helps to compose the vibration spectra (quasi-spectra) of the fluctuations of soils. With SMZ of Kutaisi territory (1996) is for the first time made the attempt to consider the nonlinearity of the soils of territory with the use of a seismic vibrator. The obtained results became the basis of the development of the new SMZ methods, which later were used for the estimation of the seismic danger of the territories of the areas of acting and projected Novovoronezh APS (1997).


Issue:   
Authors:    Zaalishvili V.B.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


The Use of Annealed Aluminum Salt Slag to Obtain a High Strength Antiseismic Brick

Key words:   inter-shale clay, burnt salt aluminum slag, earthquake-resistant ceramic brick
Annotation:   Taking into account the reduction of reserves of traditional natural raw materials, it is necessary to find new ways to replace it with different types of waste. The experience of advanced foreign countries has shown the technical feasibility of this area and the use of more as a tool to protect the environment from pollution. In the present work, instead of dehydrated clay, it is proposed to use burnt salt aluminum slag as a otoschitel. Highstrength earthquake-resistant brick M200 was obtained on the basis of inter-shale clay and burnt salt aluminum slag without the use of natural traditional raw materials. Proposed zaparovanny way of dressing aluminum oxide aluminum salt slag. Salt aluminum slags are fired at a temperature of 900-920 ° C to the content of losses during calcination not more than 4%. After firing of salt aluminum slags in the temperature range 900-920 ° C, their chemical composition was significantly enriched with aluminum oxide. The resulting ceramic brick corresponded to the brand 200, from which, thanks to the use of burnt salt aluminum slags, it is possible to erect bearing walls of the lower floors of buildings of higher floors (15 floors or more). Innovative proposals have been developed for the use of waste products: inter-shale clay and burnt salt aluminum slag in the production of high-strength ceramic earthquake-resistant bricks.
High-strength earthquake-resistant brick M175-200 was obtained on the basis of inter-shale clay and burnt salt aluminum slag without the use of natural traditional raw materials. The burnt salt aluminum slag containing more than 70% A1 2O3 increases durability and frost resistance of products of a ceramic brick. The absolute advantage of the use of multi-tonnage waste of salt aluminum slag and inter-shale clay – waste oil shale is unloading the environmental situation.

Issue:    №5 2019
Authors:    Abdrakhimov V   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


USING PASSIVE MULTI-FREQUENCY DYNAMIC OSCILIATION ABSORBERS (MDOA) IN SEISMICPROTECTION TASKS.

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Annotation:   A computer study of seismic protection using multi-frequency dynamic dampers (MDOA)  is presented, which is designed with the help of computer modeling. The aim of the work is stated simply:  oscillation energy from seismic (and technogenic) effects is transferred into the damper oscillation at several frequencies of oscillation. As MDOA elastic tanks partially filled with liquidare selected, which allows for multi-frequency resonance of damper. The use of dampers, tuned to the resonant frequency of the protected buildings, leads to a significant effect of oscillationdamping.";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"HTML
Issue:   
Authors:    Editor   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Use of Seismic Isolation under Complexes of Close Standing Buildings

Key words:   seismic resistance, seismic isolation, general planning, microdistrict, residential buildings
Annotation:   This article analyzes the existing solutions for applying special seismic protection to building complexes. The PSTU developed at the “Buildings” department designed model for a number of buildings in a seismic region in the North Caucasus with seismic isolation, made in the form of rubber-metal supports. Preliminary structural calculations have been performed showing that the use of such a seismic protection system helps to reduce the load on the building while saving money on seismic strengthening.
Issue:    №3 2019
Authors:    Tatiana A. Belash    Astafieva A.V.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


The use of elastic vibrations with different wavelengths to evaluate the dynamic parameters of buildings and structures and assess the strength of materials of the building construction

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Annotation:   The paper presented considers the potential use of elastic vibrations with different wavelengths to determine the dynamic parameters of the investigated buildings and structures. Furthermore, the use of acoustic methods is examined as nondestructive testing methods to assess the strength and composition of the building construction.
Issue:   
Authors:    Savin S.N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Use of recycled tires for earthquake protection of structures

Key words:   foundation, screen, ground dam, tire, shock absorber, reinforcing element, earthquake- resistant structure, vibration dampener
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The article presents numerous structures of earthquake-resistant foundations that have been developed by the authors and other engineers over the past more than 30 years, in which recycled metal-cord tires are used. The designs of dynamic dampers of dynamic vibrations, in which the containers for bulk fillers are made of recycled tires, are presented. Recycled tires are also effectively used in the creation of earthquake shields, as well as reinforcing elements and seismic insulation

layers of earthquake-resistant ground dams. In all the above-mentioned technical solutions, the earthquake resistance of buildings and structures is achieved due to the unique geometric and physico-chemical-mechanical properties of recycled rubber tires with a metal cord.

 


Issue:    #3 2021
Authors:    Gabibov Fahraddin G.    Shokbarov Eraly M.    Habibova Leila F.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Research of Influence of Nonlinear and Elastic and Dissipative Characteristics of Elements of the Wooden Building of Frame Type on Its Seismic Stability

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The analysis of theoretical researches of features of work of the frame buildings executed on the simplest settlement model of the building in the form of the odnomassny nonlinear oscillator taking into account nonlinear and elastic and dissipative characteristics of material of elements is submitted and the assessment of the accounting of their influence on the general nature of behavior of the building in general is given.


Issue:   
Authors:    Ivanova Zh.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Research and Assessment of the Seismic Risk of Strong and Destroying Earthquakes on the Territory of Tajikistan

Key words:   earthquake resistance, limit load, earthquake, landslide, seismic belt, mudbrick buildings, mudbrick, dynamic load, antiseismic belt
Annotation:  

The area of Tajikistan is 143.1 thousand km2, while about 93% of its territory is occupied by mountains, the maximum heights of which reach more than 7000 m above sea level. The rest of the country (7%) is plains and valleys with heights from 300 to 1000 m above sea level. Such a significant range of heights is explained by the location of the study area in the junction zone of the Tien Shan fold system and the Alpine-Himalayan belt and leads to a wide variety of geological, hydrogeological, landscape-climatic and seismic conditions, analysis of the consequences of destructive earthquakes is of great importance for solving scientific and practical problems in the field of seismology, as well as problems of earthquake-resistant construction. The analysis of consequences of destructive earthquakes is important for solving scientific and practical tasks in the field of seismology and problems of earthquake engineering. One of the main sources of seismic resistance assessment of buildings and structures, along with theoretical and experimental studies, is engineering analysis of the consequences of strong earthquakes. This article deals with the effects of earthquakes on the earth's surface. The example of the following devastating earthquakes that occurred in Tajikistan, the impact of these seismic events on various types of residential buildings built from local materials is considered, and the main reasons for the observed nature of deformations and destruction are discussed.


Issue:    #6 2020
Authors:    Sanginov Abdusamad M.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Studying of Bent Concrete Structures Reinforced With Fiber Reinforced Plastic With Dynamic Loads

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The article presents the results of experimental studies of the work of normal and oblique section bent concrete structures reinforced with fiber reinforced plastics gluing surface, with few repeated dynamic loads. The possible destruction of their scheme and background strength calculation.


Issue:   
Authors:    Altigenov U.B.    Bespaev A.A.    Kuralov U.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Research of Work of Seismic Isolation Friction Pendulum Bearing at Periodic Influence

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Annotation:   In this article modeling of the system active seismic protection (seismic isolation) of buildings in the form of friction pendulum bearing is made, which has some use in Earthquake Engineering abroad, but not enough researched now. Friction pendulum bearings of the company FIP Industriale are considered. Numerical researches of the work of seismic isolation are carried out at periodic lateral load with different parameters of external influence. The main results include numerical values of displacements of the friction pendulum bearing and shear forces, force-displacement relation of seismic isolation, at the external periodic load. Conclusions reflecting the criteria for the selection of a friction pendulum bearing depending on the parameters of external influence are formulated. Researches are carried out using the software package LS-DYNA.
Issue:   
Authors:    Arutyunyan L.M.    Mkrtychev O.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Research on the Performance of Compressed Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Plastic under Dunamic Loads

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Annotation:   The article presents the results of experimental studies of compressed concrete structures reinforced with fiber reinforced plastic surface gluing, with a few repeated dynamic loads. Outlines the features of damage accumulation, given the strength depending on the number of repeated loadings. The methods for calculating the strength of reinforced structures and determination of forces in the cage of fiber reinforced plastics.
Issue:   
Authors:    Altigenov U.B.    Bespaev A.A.    Kuralov U.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Investigation of Seismic Waves Excited by Artificial Sources

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In spite of breakthrough in the field of engineering seismology a lot in the features of generation and identification of S waves still remains little-known. Seismic waves excited by artificial sources are considered in the article. Explorations include field investigations realized by the author in previous decades. One of the major problems is still a reliable identification of S waves. Thereby the phase inverse phenomenon of S waves generated by horizontal source in different types of soils was considered. The examples of the main types of seismic waves generated by vertical source by polarizing analysis method are given in the article.

Soils watering degree influence on the values of body seismic wave propagation velocities was investigated. Further a probabilistic assessment of the values of seismic wave velocities in different soil types was carried out. Obtained by the author empirical relations for soils density dependence on S-wave velocities in these soils are given in the article.


Issue:   
Authors:    Zaalishvili V.B.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Research of Stability and Seismic Resistance of Non-Uniform Two-Layer Rods in Elastic Medium

Key words:   seismic impact, dynamic stability, non-uniform materials, two-layer rod, longitudinal force
Annotation:   Simulation considered after the main seismic impacts are removed from the structure, the two-layer rod, which is in an elastic environment, is subjected to periodic longitudinal forces. In the investigated work the Bubnov”s-Galerkin method was used, numerical calculations were made. The main area of dynamic instability is built and shown in the figure, where the dotted line marks the solution of a homogeneous problem.
Issue:    №2 2020
Authors:    Hasanova T.J.    Tagiyeva Saida Abdulali   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Researches in the Field of Aseismic Construction at the Petersburg State University of Means of Communication

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Article is devoted to the 150 anniversary of  «Buildings» chair and the 120 anniversary of «Theoretical Mechanics chair» of FGBOU VPO PGUPS Imperator of Alexander I. The main scientific achievements in the field of aseismic construction executed at university are presented.

Results of researches are analyzed in a chronological order. The assessment of settlement and theoretical researches in the field of seismic stability of buildings and various transport constructions, including bridges is given. It is featured questions of studying of seismoisolation. The contribution of scientists of university to development of aseismic construction is shown.

Practical value of the presented analysis consists in possibility of its use by the beginning young scientists, engineers dealing with issues of construction of buildings and constructions in regions of high seismic activity.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tatiana A. Belash    Uzdin A.M.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




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Issue:    №3 2018
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerzhanov S.Е.    Daugavet V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Change Research of Dynamic Characteristics of High-rise Building According to Data from Engineering Seismometric Stations

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Annotation:   Analysis of instrumental records made by stations of Engineering and Seismometric Service on buildings has been performed to assess changes in dynamic characteristics of the 25-storeyed building of the “Kazakhstan” hotel in Almaty. The building is located near tectonic fault. During two earthquakes, representative instrumental data were obtained at the seismic station No. 16 (“Highrise hotel”) equipped with digital instrumentation system. The building is twenty-five storied with a stiffening core, was built in 1976. Using ADXL accelerometers and RSM-8 recorder, qualitative instrumental records of accelerations were received in the basement, on the floors and on the roof of the building, and spectral curves ? were also built. The features of the dynamics of this building during the earthquake are noted. Under the impact of remote earthquake, building oscillation periods were revealed on the first and second oscillation modes. Dynamic characteristics of the house were compared according to the measurements of 1977 and 2018. Significant increase in the magnitude of oscillation period on the first mode by 25-48% as compared with the measurements of 1976-1977 over the 40-year period of operation was established.

Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerzhanov S.Е.    Daugavet V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Studies of instrumental records of the engineering seismometric service at the Kapchagay HPP

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Annotation:   Instrumental records of accelerations at the Kapchagay HPP facilities (soil, HPP building and channel dam) at the intensity 5 earthquakes are given for the first time. Spectral curves ? are built. It has been established that under the effects of two earthquakes, the least spectral curves differ for the case of a channel dam, the most – for the recording point on the soil. Recommendations are given for expansion in the number of recording points.
Issue:   
Authors:    Yerzhanov S.Е.    Vladimir A. Lapin    Daugavet V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Studies of the «Pile-In-Pipe» Seismic Isolation System with Inelastic Joints

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Annotation:   "Some results of research on the optimization of specific adaptive seismic isolation «pile-in-pipe» are rendered. It is shown that taking into account the principle of uncertainty information about the parameters of future earthquakes optimal seismic protection systems (from the point of view of minimizing of the horizontal acceleration) which are related to the class of adaptive systems that are capable to reconstruction (selftuning) of the dynamic characteristics in the process of intense earthquake. The system of «pile-in-pipe» is a combination of the support of «pile-in-pipe» type in combination with inelastic disables communication. In some situations, the seismological and engineering the system can be very effective.
Issue:   
Authors:    Gaipov S.K.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Studies in Earthquake Resistance of Buildings with Underground Parkings

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Annotation:   The paper presents studies in earthquake resistance of buildings with underground parkings and seismic isolation systems between superstructures and substructures. It is established that to ensure earthquake resistance of these buildings one has to take into account the nature of the effect as well as to improve reliability of the building behavior one should integrate dry-friction energy absorbers into the system of seismo-isolating supports.
Issue:   
Authors:    Yakovlev L.A.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Historical Masonry Towers: Overview, Seismic Vulnerability, Behavior During an Earthquake, Seismic Strengthening

Key words:   bell tower, minaret, historical masonry towers, St Mark's Campanile, minaret of the Great Mosque of Aleppo, Leaning Tower of Pisa, architectural monuments, earthquake, earthquake resistance, vulnerability, building structures
Annotation:   The article provides an overview of historic masonry towers such as the minarets of mosques, bell towers of churches, clock towers, leaning towers, so-called "falling towers" and ruined towers. It was considered what kind of masonry, what kind of mortars the Romans, the ancient Egyptians, the Inca and Mayan cultures in America used. Some aspects of seismic vulnerability of masonry towers were studied. The modes of destruction of thin masonry structures, mechanisms of destruction of masonry in
towers are considered, the seismic behavior of historical masonry towers are
considered, and one of the methods of seismic strengthening using an innovative "smart"
material is presented. 
Issue:    #6 2020
Authors:    Aldrebi Ziad Ahmad   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


About the impact of damage to building structures of existing "wet" storage of spent nuclear fuel at its seismic resistance

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Pools for the long term storage of spent nuclear fuel are extremely dangerous buildings. Their seismic resistance is very important and topical theme. Design feature of such structures is the presence of a rigid bottom and flexible frame top, which is most vulnerable to earthquakes.

This article presents the results of a study of the effect of damages of building structures of the existing "wet" storage of spent nuclear fuel at its earthquake resistance


Issue:   
Authors:    Tatiana A. Belash    Travin Sergei M.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On the question of setting the level of calculated impact and reliability of high-rise construction

Key words:   high rise buildings, seismic stability, seismic input level, reliability, risk
Annotation:   The question of setting the seismic design input on high rise buildings is considered. The existing approaches to accounting for increased responsibility of high rise buildings in Russia are described. The proposal to reduce the probability of an acceptable building failure in proportion to the number of floors and Guideline proposals to increase the reliability factor and using maps of general seismic zoning are analyzed. The main disadvantages of methods described are indicated. It is shown that the current regulatory documents in the field of earthquake engineering do not provide the same reliability of designed structures in general and high-rise buildings in particular. The influence of seismic dangers in according with seismic zoning maps on the reliability of the designed objects is noted. An approach to generating the design input based on the permissible probability of its exceeding is considered using the example of five five-storey buildings and one 25-storey buildings. The probability of the admissible damage value included in the normative calculations is estimated. An estimate of the allowable failure probability on the value of acceptable damage (risk) is proposed under the assumption of a normal distribution of damage caused by earthquake. It is shown that the allowable failure probability decreases with decreasing acceptable damage only in the area of small damages. An approach to the assignment of seismic action based on an assessment of seismic risk has been formulated. The system of design coefficients used to calculate seismic loads on high-rise buildings is analyzed. It is noted that along with an increase in the design level of seismic acceleration, it is necessary to increase the coefficient, taking into account the low damping of high-rise buildings oscillations. At the same time, it is possible to significantly reduce the reduction coefficient by regulating the strains between the building floors.
Issue:   
Authors:    Dmitry M. Zhemchugov-Gitman    Lyubov V. Mozzhukhina    Uzdin A.M.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On the Issue of Differentiated Assessment of Seismic Hazard on the Russian Federation’s Territory

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Annotation:   The paper reports on updating the set of normative seismic zoning plans of Russia’s territory – OCP-97. Basing on the results obtained in 2010-2011, it is proposed for the building practice to use a wider set of quantitative criteria to assess the values of expected seismic actions. In particular, beside the integer-valued points of the macroseismic scale the use of their fractional values is justified. The list of human settlements in the Russian Federation is presented with indication of expected maximum seismic intensity with an accuracy to 0.5 point.
Issue:   
Authors:    Ulomov V.I.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


About a New Theory of Seismic Resistance

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Annotation:   The new system of differential equation in particular derivatives for the description of spread of elastic wave bending and bending in work is aimed at simultaneous defining of displacement and angle turn cantilever homogeneous bar of constant section is obtained in work.
Issue:   
Authors:    Hovhannisyan Sevada M.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On the Issue of Taking into Account Damping in the Assessment of Seismic Resistance of Structures

Key words:   external damping, internal damping, inhomogeneous acceleration field, node at the point of support of the structure, equation of seismic oscillations
Annotation:   The authors present their view of the problem, with the frame of the discussion devoted to equations of seismic oscillations taking into account damping. The oscillation equations taking into account external and internal damping are written down. The cases of homogeneous and inhomogeneous acceleration field of the day surface along the length of the structure are considered.

Issue:    №6 2019
Authors:    Smirnova L.N.    Uzdin A.M.    Polorotova N.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On Assessment of the Economic Damage caused by Strong Earthquakes

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The current problems of assessment of seismic damage and of the effectiveness of anti-seismic measures through the example of the Racha and Neftegorskiy devastating earthquakes, as well as in the context of a rare occurrence of earthquakes. It is obvious that the expenses for anti-seismic measures are always much lower than an actual damage cost.


Issue:   
Authors:    Editor   
Rubric:     Seismic risk and damage   


Risk Estimation in Design Procedures with Due Regard to Bearing Elements

Key words:  
Annotation:   Structural capacity deterioration is among the main causes of increasing failure probabilities of structural systems. The objective of this paper is to investigate probabilistic approaches based on the annual reliability index and annual risk of structural systems.
Issue:   
Authors:    Raizer V.D.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


To the Estimation of the 9-storey Block Sections of the Series 111 Seismic Resistance for the 1988 Spitak Earthquake

Key words:  
Annotation:   The results of a retrospective analysis of seismic resistance of 9-storey block sections in Gyumri (Leninakan), exposed to the Spitak earthquake on 08.12.1988, are presented. The results of vibration testing of the experimental block section of the series 111 are used. The calculations of the seismic stability of the block section using the «pushover analysis» method, as well as the direct dynamic calculation of the model of complex elastic-plastic deformation of a mechanical system with two degrees of freedom were performed. The data of the macroseismic survey of the consequences of the 1988 Spitak earthquake are presented. 

Authors:    Ordynskaia A.P.    Berzhinsky Yu.A.    Berzhinskaya L.P.    Finkelshteyn E.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №3 2018
Authors:    Ordynskaia A.P.    Berzhinsky Yu.A.    Berzhinskaya L.P.    Finkelshteyn E.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On Assessment of Earthquake Resistance of Sandwich Panel Connections with Steel Frame Using «HARPOON» Self-Drilling Bolt Screws

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The results of experimental studies in earthquake resistance of «HARPOON» self-drilling bolt screws (GLOBAL RIVET Company) under dynamic load are set forth. In the course of the tests using a two-component vibroplatform the dynamic effects were modeled in the form of the cyclic (harmonic) load, impulse input (seismic impact) and repeated transient load. Basing on the test results, the recommendations are given on using «HARPOON” fastening elements to connect cladding sandwich panels to steel frames of buildings to be erected in areas with 7-9 point seismicity.


Issue:   
Authors:    Granovsky A.V.    Dottuyev A.I.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


The Analysis of a Structure Subjected to Seismic Action, Taking into Account the Change in the Structure's Design in the Vibration Process

Key words:   the normal form method, seismic impact, analytical research, elements failure
Annotation:   A calculation method for structures under seismic impacts is proposed taking into account changes in buildings' structural design during deformation, based on the normal forms
method and the presentation of design forms for calculating seismic forces in the form of expansions in the forms of natural vibrations. These formulas are close to the calculated ones given in a number of standard documents. The solution is made in time steps. At each step, the structural design is adopted from the results of the static calculation for seismic forces determined at the previous stage. The solution method is getting built in the form of forms expansions using the software MATHCAD. The seismic forces numerical values are
calculated at each time step, taking into account changes in the structural design in the previous step by static calculation for seismic forces impacts. The proposed approach allows us to evaluate the seismic forces values, taking into account changes in the structural design during oscillations at each time step. A change in the structural design is evaluated by static calculation based on seismic forces determined in the previous step. The coefficient K1 values were estimated as the ratio of seismic forces at the stage preceding
failure to seismic forces at the stage corresponding to the end of the elastic stage.
Issue:    №3 2020
Authors:    Chernov Yu.T.    Qbaily Jaafar   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


To the calculation of vibration isolation systems with fluid viscous dampers

Key words:  
Annotation:   A method is given for calculating vibration isolation systems with a viscous dampers as nonlinear systems with single and two degrees of freedom. Nonlinearity is determined by the inclusion  of additional dissipative forces in zones of large displacements (near resonant zones at start-up and shutdown of equipment). The method is illustrated by an example of calculating a system with single degree of freedom. The results of the calculation shows that the inclusion of viscous friction dampers in the transient modes makes it possible to significantly reduce the levels of oscillations during passage through the resonance, and the maximum displacements in the resonance zone are  practically independent of the time intervals in the starting and  stopping modes.
Issue:   
Authors:    Chernov Yu.T.    Zebilila M.D.-H.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


How do the shock absorbers work for the seismic protection of buildings? Investigation of the question by numeric simulations. Part 2.

Key words:  
Annotation:   A computer study on seismic protection is presented. Part 1 has shown that passive rubber-like shock absorbers in the foundations of buildings are often not effective enough. The purpose of this work is to look at the possibility of applying an unconventional approach for seismic protection tasks. A model task is used to change the resonant properties of the protected object by applying a passive multifrequency dynamic vibration absorber. Indeed, in the absence of specific information on a possible earthquake under a particular building – on the direction of its impact, on its frequency components, which can coincide with the resonant frequencies of the protected building, etc., how to protect the object? Computer simulation showed that if the damper considered in Part 1 is used as a passive multifrequency dynamic absorber, placed on the roof of the building, then it is possible to obtain a noticeable effect of reduced resonant peaks. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Makarov S.    Pankova N.    Tropkin S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


How do the shock absorbers work for the seismic protection of buildings. Investigation of the pro blem on SIMULIA ABAQUS. Part1

Key words:  
Annotation:   A computer study on seismic protection devoted to the effectiveness of the use of rubber-like shock absorbers installed on the foundation of buildings during protection from earthquakes is presented. The purpose of the work is formulated simply: in the absence of information on a possible earthquake in advance – on its direction of impact, its frequency components, capable of resonating with the protected building, etc., how to obtain protection from the use of shock absorbers on the foundation. It is shown that in the seismic zone up to15-20 Hz they are not very effective.
Issue:   
Authors:    Makarov S.    Pankova N.    Tropkin S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The frame assembled from «H» elements

Key words:   building frame, frames, industrial production, reinforced concrete
Annotation:  

The general characteristics of the structural system of a full-assembly frame of "H" elements for the construction of residential buildings are described. "H" element is a hybrid of two columns, each is one storey high, join to monolith with the joist. The junction of the columns is located in the middle of the floor height. These elements are assembled to structural cells with longitudinal, transverse or cross-arrangement of bearing frames. Joints of columns with joist are rigid. The overall spatial stability of the frame is provided by the layout of the frame elements, as well as the use of various kinds of connections. Slabs are prefabricated. Connections of "H" elements are made by the ties with the use of screw reinforcing bars. 

 


Issue:    #6 2020
Authors:    Vladimir P. Blazhko    Alexey V. Belyaev   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Seismic Zoning Maps Need Updating

Key words:  
Annotation:   The need of seismic zoning maps deep modification is discussed. The modern seismic maps which are elements of Russian seismic building code are in some parts out of date. The seismic intensity maps are based on different physical intensity criteria. Earthquake ground motions parameters are used simultaneously with human fear estimations. Such criteria use could lead to different estimations of seismic intensities when the real effective intensities of earthquake are equal. Proposals, on seismic intensity criteria modernization and of seismic zoning maps modernization are presented.
Issue:   
Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Сomments to the articles «How do the shock absorbers work for the seismic protection of buildings?»

Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Viewpoints   


Conservative Enveloping of Seismic Excitations at the Base Mat in SSI Problems. Part I. Layout of the Algorithm

Key words:  
Annotation:   "In seismic analysis of NPP they usually use several schemes for every structure, with different free field excitations and/or different properties of foundation. Standards require to envelope resulting spectra (as to the resulting internal forces — to take maximal values). As structure itself is one and the same in all these variants, one can try to envelope not the final results but some intermediary results instead, in order to perform the time-consuming analysis of the detailed model only once. The author suggests the scheme of this kind and the sequence of test problems.
Issue:   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Conservative Enveloping of Seismic Excitations at the Base Mat in SSI Problems. Part II. 1d Analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:   The author continues the discussion about the enveloping of response spectra at the base mat. The goal is to perform most time-consuming analysis of the detailed model only once for a number of different soil foundations. In this paper the 1D three-mass system is considered. Evaluation of «enveloping» time-history is discussed as well as the accuracy of the basic principle — «the greater is the excitation spectrum, the greater is the response».
Issue:   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Conservative Enveloping of Seismic Excitations at the Base Mat in SSI Problems. Part III. Example of 3D Analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:   The author continues the discussion about the enveloping of response spectra at the base mat. The goal is to perform most time-consuming analysis of the detailed structural model only once for a number of different soil foundations. In this paper the real-life example of 3D SSI analysis using the proposed approach is presented.
Issue:   
Authors:    Editor   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Conservative Enveloping of Seismic Excitations at the Base Mat in SSI Problems. Part IV. Investigation of Conservatism for 3D Analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:   The author continues the discussion about the enveloping of response spectra at the base mat. The ultimate goal is to perform the most time-consuming analysis of the detailed model only once for a number of different soil foundations. In this paper the real-life example of 3D analysis is presented: conservatism of proposed approach is verified against conventional analyses.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Design Decisions of Precast Concrete Frame «Shymkent-FID» and the Results of the Dynamic Tests

Key words:  
Annotation:   This article presents the design decisions of precast concrete frame «Shymkent-FID» and the results of the dynamic tests, clearly showing that a return to the «well-forgotten old» shall be based on the latest achievements of engineering and technology, is able to revive the design of the system, which has been effectively recognized back in the 70’s of last century. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Itskov I.E.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Durability control of concrete structures exposed to defects

Key words:  
Annotation:   Defects in the construction process are fairly urgent problem whose solution requires significant labor and material and technological costs. Existing non-destructive methods of control and evaluation of strength of concrete structures is not fully able to evaluate operational properties. The article deals with
possible variations to determine the strength of concrete structures subjected to defects. Special attention is paid to massive structures, where the presence of hidden defects very difficult to define.
Issue:   
Authors:    Dobshits L.    Belov A.    Klybanov A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Optimum Allocation of Resources in Technogenic Natural and Other Accidental Actions

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The concept of optimal distribution of protective resources for structures in emergency situations, as technogenic, as well as earthquakes, tsunami, tornado’s, and other accidental actions is introduced. Minimax criterion is proposed. For an analysis of the type of «cost-efficiency» the target function is used.


Issue:   
Authors:    Raizer V.D.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Criteria of Assessing Earthquake Resistance Deficiency in Existing Buildings and Structures within the Framework of the Federal Target Program

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper presents the basic provisions of the Federal Target Program “Increasing Stability of Residential Buildings, Basic Projects and Life-Support Systems in Seismic Areas of the Russian Federation in 2009-2018” stipulating integrated studies in developing the regulatory and guideline framework to ensure assessment (analysis) of the earthquake resistance deficiency in buildings and structures within urban and rural life-support systems as well as their vulnerability (seismic risk)
Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.    Vorontsova N.Yu.    Smirnov V. I.    Sushkov P.A.   
Rubric:     Federal Target Programs   


Criteria Limit States of Masonry Structures Earthquake-Resistant Buildings

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper presents the results of numerical research structural models of masonry under biaxial stresses. It is established that that the plastic deformation phase is determined by the interaction of basic materials of masonry (brick/stone and mortar). Established mechanisms local destruction, forming stages of the process of plastic deformation. It has been established that the plastic deformation of the masonry in a biaxial stresses is realized at the brick and mortar in the linear mode. Presented and justified criteria limit states of masonry structures earthquake-resistant buildings, defined on the basis of the masonry characteristics of plasticity.
Issue:   
Authors:    Kabantsev O.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


STRENGTH CRITERIA OF NPP CONTAINMENT UNDER EXTERNAL ACTIONS

Key words:  
Annotation:   The code of practice in the field of atomic energy establishes the safety targets for NPPs. One of these safety targets regulate the yearly probability of large emergency radioactive release into the air. Accident with reactor pipelines rupture can occur in the case of earthquake. In this case the containment serves as a barrier against radioactive release into the environment. The purpose of this work was to define the strength criteria for containment to ensure the safety targets of yearly probability of large emergency release at seismic and other external events. The results of the work show that in the case of external events the containment strength criteria provide correspondence with safety targets if they are defined with account of yearly probability of the action assumed and with due account of probability of failure (rupture) of reactor pipelines under this action. The strength criteria for containment should be defined with overconsevative reserves, the more is the yearly probability of the action assumed and the more is the probability of reactor pipelines failure under this action. It is shown that at small yearly probability of the action and small probability of the reactor pipelines failure the strength criteria of containment, defined due to the safety target of a yearly probability of large accidental release, became less conservative then civil and erection strength criteria.
Issue:   
Authors:    Nefedov S.S.    Rodin P.A.    Yugay T.Z.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Critical Force for Design the Pipe-Concrete Structural Strength

Key words:  
Annotation:   The results of studying the stability of the compressed pipe-concrete structures are given. Formulated the calculation principles and assumptions. Expressions for critical forces are given it is shown that the direct application of the formulas of existing regulations can lead to errors. The comparison of the results of calculation of critical forces at the given formulas with the experimental data is given.
Issue:   
Authors:    Krylov S.    Savrasov I.    Smirnov P.    Obozov V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Torsion of Symmetric Structures Located on the Various Systems of Seismic Isolation Subjected to Wave Passage Effect of Earthquake

Key words:   torsion, seismic rotations, rotation component of seismic excitation, pendulum bearings, rubber bearings
Annotation:   Mathematical model of structure located on various systems of seismic isolation such as laminated rubber bearings and pendulum bearings are considered. This model takes into account torsion of superstructure caused by rotational component of seismic excitation. Rotational component of seismic excitation reflects the wave nature of earthquake. This paper illustrates the torsional response of isolated structure.
Issue:    №6 2019
Authors:    Bondarev D.E.    Simbort E.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Response Spectra Method for Extended Systems with Proportional Damping

Key words:   response spectra method, internal damping, external damping, system with point bearings on the soil base
Annotation:   The application of the response spectra method for extended damped systems with a point support on the base is considered. The support excitations can be different. External and internal damping is taken into account, it being assumed proportional i.e. admitting an exact or approximate decomposition of motion according to the undamped system modes. It is noted that the presence of external damping leads to additional system perturbation, i.e. to additional members appearance in the right part of motion equations. It is shown that well-known formulas of the response spectra method for systems on a rigid platform are kept intact, but the vector of load projections on the directions of generalized coordinates is modified taking into account the influence of support displacements on generalized loads in the system.


Issue:    №1 2020
Authors:    Smirnova L.N.    Uzdin A.M.    Polorotova N.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Linear Spectral Seismic Analysis of High-rise Building

Key words:   seismic response, linear spectral method of analysis, combined asymptotic method, high-rise building
Annotation:   Summary: Linear Spectral Method (LSM) by origin is accurate only for single-degree- of-freedom systems. For more complicated systems (and real systems are always more complicated) LSM uses certain double summation rules to combine single-mode responses to one-component excitations. These rules are not precise, they are rather statistical; in different codes they are different. In fact, these rules are based on experience with structures of certain type. That is why the author thinks special check is necessary when one deals with structures having certain peculiarities (like high-rise buildings). This is essentially a check for the applicability of the summation rules. Algorithm for such a check – to compare the results obtained in the time domain for excitation timehistories with LSM results provided input spectra for LSM are obtained from the same time-histories and damping in oscillators is equal to the structural damping. In the present paper seismic responses are compared in the format of the integral response forces under the base mat. The main result is that conventional summation rules in LSM lead to the considerable deviation in the results including underestimation of the response forces.

Issue:    №1 2019
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №3 2018
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.    Toporkov A.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Maximal Integral Forces under the Base: Different Estimates of Shear Stability and Potential Uplift

Key words:  
Annotation:   The authors discuss different estimates of shear stability andpotential uplift during seismic events. They compare the results obtained with 6D time-histories of integral seismic forces under the base to the approximate estimates obtained with maximal integral forces only. The goal is to estimate the applicability of extended Newmark rule (sometimes called 100-40-40 rule). In fact, this rule is based on two assumptions. First, when each of several statistically independent components reaches its’ maximal absolute value, the other components reach about 40% of their maximal absolute values. Second, absolute maximum of the target function of these components may be estimated after comparing target functions in specific time points mentioned above, when one component reaches its maximum, and all other components reach 40% of their maximums. In the paper twelve cases were studied (four different seismic excitations and three soil profiles for each of them). For base shear the target function is ratio of the absolute value of the shear force vector to the compression force consisting of dead weight and vertical seismic force. It turned out that the approximate approach described above gave good results for this target function. For the potential uplift estimates the target function is an area where vertical stresses due to the seismic base rocking turned to be tensile. Here the same 100-40-40 approach gave non-conservative results. It turned out, that the first assumption mentioned above was more or less applicable, but the second assumption was not valid. Maximal target function was actually reached in the time point different from each of the time points with single maximal components, and maximal target function was considerably greater than each of the target functions in these specific “partial” time points. To restore the conservatism of the approximate estimate one has to apply Newmark rule only to the rocking moments, and seismic vertical force has to be considered in full.

Authors:    Tyapin A.G.    Toporkov A.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF FLUID FLOW TO THE WELL USING FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVES

Key words:   fractional differential equation, numerical method, Cauchy problem
Annotation:  

The article considers the initial Cauchy problem for a fractional differential equation with a variable coefficient and its numerical solution is applicable in the problem of developing an oil well to determine the pressure change with increasing distance from the well. The parameter of the proposed mathematical model for a specific well was identified based on experimental data. The parameter of the mathematical model was determined by solving the problem of approximating empirical data using the least squares method.


Issue:    №4 2020
Authors:    Khvorova A.N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   

read more

The article considers the initial Cauchy problem for a fractional differential equation with a variable coefficient and its numerical solution is applicable in the problem of developing an oil well to determine the pressure change with increasing distance from the well. The parameter of the proposed mathematical model for a specific well was identified based on experimental data. The parameter of the mathematical model was determined by solving the problem of approximating empirical data using the least squares method.


Mathematical Modeling of Seismic Action Enhancement and Decaying Process in Case of High-Rise Structures

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper sets and solves a contact boundary problem of joint seismic vibrations of a system consisting of two soil layers, a foundation mass and a high-rise structure. The formulas for calculating the oscillation amplitudes of the structure body are obtained. It is shown that the relative amplitude of the structure top diminishes rapidly with the rise of the structure height.


Issue:   
Authors:    Muzaev I.D.    Muzaev N. I.    Harebov K.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Международная конференция «spitak-30. спитакское землетрясение 30 лет спустя: опыт и перспективы»

Key words:  
Annotation:  

С 3 по 7 декабря 2018 г. в столице Армении городе Ереване состоялась Международная конференция «Spitak-30.Спитакское землетрясение 30 лет спустя: опыт и перспективы», в работе которой приняли участие более 100 разнопрофильных ученых геологов-тектонистов, геофизиков-сейсмологов, специалистов по сейсмостойкому строительству.


Issue:    №6 2018
Rubric:     Conferences. Symposia. Meetings   


Method of predicting synthetic seismograms and accelerograms of various soil bases in strong earthquakes

Key words:  
Annotation:   Problems of predicting displacement and acceleration values for strong ground motions are considered for the case when an earthquake is assumed as an instantaneous mechanical break of the Earth surface. The purpose of the studies is an attempt to develop, based on the up-to-date concepts of earthquake generation process, simplified theoretical methods for the quantitative prediction of ground motion parameters in strong earthquakes. The case considered as an illustrative example is that of an earthquake originating as a consequence of relatiemotions of suddenly ruptured blocks in horizontal direction with a given initial velocity. The work established an empirical relationship between the soil particle motion velocity near the rupture, at certain distance from it, on one hand, and the earthquake magnitude, on the other hand. It is assumed that given the instantaneous break of a medium, the impact of inertial motions of deep soil strata on the inertial motions of upper, subsurface soil strata can be neglected. By solving wave task for a multi-layer near-surface stratum, analytical relations were produced for soil seismogram and accelerogram on the Earth surface depending on: the physical-mechanical and dynamic characteristics of soils in all layers of the stratum; attenuation ratios of mechanical soil vibrations; distance to the rupture; and, magnitude of the predicted earthquake. The obtained results enable establishing not only peak ground displacement and acceleration values with allowance for local soil conditions, but also their changes in time, and, the value of predominant soil vibration periods. The method is illustrated for the rocky and soft soil basements. On the basis of the results obtained (17), a technique for determining soils’ synthetic accelerograms of the soils of predicted strong earthquakes with a M?6.0 magnitude has been developed for various construction sites of seismic properties with a T01 dominant period from 0.1 to 2 sec. The method is illustrated for hard and loose ground bases, with 6.0?M?9.0 magnitudes (see Tables 3 and 4, and Figures 3 and 4). Quantitative assessments of the base higher forms vibration influence on the values of displacements and accelerations are given. It is shown that these values increase the acceleration of soils 2.53 times when calculated only by the first form, and by movement only 1.1 times. When the magnitude of the predicted earthquake changes by only one unit then displacement and acceleration of soils are changed 2.72 times. The displacement and acceleration of soils during earthquakes of M = 6.0 magnitude are 20 times less than for earthquakes with magnitude M = 9.0. The displacements and accelerations of solid and loose soils at a distance ? = 15 km are approximately 2 times less than for the discontinuity (? = 0), regardless of the earthquake magnitude. Accelerations of solid soils running up to M?7.0 magnitudes can reach 1g, and on loose soils – only at M?8.0. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Hachiyan E.E.    Levonian L.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Method of Calculating Absolutely Rigid Prismatic Deep Piles Forced by Mutual Vertical and Horizontal Loads Considering Face and Side Resistance of Ground

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Basing on Fuss-Winkler’s model characterized by parametrically non-linear changing of coefficient of ground rigidness along depth and Kulon’s law of extreme shear strain in soil the calculation of absolutely rigid prismatic piles under combined action of vertical and horizontal loads considering point resistance and side friction resistance of ground is concidered. As result the values of bending moments, shear forces in random cross-sections of absolutely rigid piles were defined. The position of the point of zero displacement of piles as far as the surface of the base, offered formulas to calculate unknown initial parameters (Y0 and ?0), extremal along loads.


Issue:   
Authors:    Mamedov A.J.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Method Аnalysis of Vibration Protection Systems Considered as Systems with Three Degrees of Freedom Under Equipment Transient Loads

Key words:  
Annotation:   Method of analysis of vibroinsulated systems under dynamic loads of equipment transient modes is given in the article. Vibroinsulated systems are considered as systems with three degrees of freedom. The method is based on using impulse transfer functions which are system responses to unit impulses. Transfer functions formulas obtained by the author were used for construction of impulse transfer functions formulas. The algorithm is based on method developed by professor Yu.T. Chernov. Examples of analysis showed stability and convergence of method. The same approach can be applied for analysis of vibroinsulated systems under arbitrary loads using presented impulse transfer functions formulas.
Issue:   
Authors:    Osipova M. V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Calculation Method of Structure Response Subjected to Multi-Component Seismic Load

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Article is devoted to calculation method development to obtain response of structure subjected to multi-component seismic load. Brief overview of existing response calculation methods is presented. The model under consideration was calculated on seismic influences in direct dynamic formulation in simulation software ANSYS 14.5 and LIRA 10.2 R3. Maximal and minimal «envelope» spectra were obtained to evaluate maximum and minimum structure responses respectively. Special macro to calculate maximal and minimal «envelope» spectra was developed using Ansys Parametric Design Language. Comparison of results obtained using common methods with results obtained using proposed method is presented.


Issue:   
Authors:    Alekhin V.N.    Kolesnikov A.V.    Ushakov O.Yu.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


THE METHOD OF CALCULATING THE LAYERED ROCK-SOLID WALLS WITH THE WORK OF ALL LAYERS OF DESIGN, INCLUDING SEISMIC LOAD.

Key words:  
Annotation:   The Analysis conducted for various constructive decisions of walls shows that the stone-reinforced walls can be a solution preferable to the construction in the climatic conditions seismic regions of Siberia, Transbaikalia and the Far East. Constructive system combines high thermal performance and high seismic resistance.
Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Method of Experimental Reproduction of the Seismic Impact on Buildings and Structures Based on the Real Earthquake Accelerogram

Key words:  
Annotation:  

A method is developed to reproduce seismic impact on structures based on the recorded earthquake accelerogram and upon the condition that the maximum values of seismic inertia forces under real seismic impacts and in case of simultaneous action of groups of powerful vibratory machines installed at different levels of the structure are equivalent.

The parameters of the vibratory machines, such as mass-eccentricities and their distance to the rotation axis, are determined depending on the dynamic characteristics of the structure, locations of the vibratory machines and the accelerogram of the earthquake being reproduced by the formula derived in the article.


Issue:   
Authors:    Hachiyan E.E.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №4 2018
Authors:    Polyakov S.V.    Kilimnik L.Sh.    Zhunusov T.Zh.    Itskov I.E.    Nikiporets G.L.   
Rubric:     Past publications   


Methods of analysis of results of vibration tests of buildings and largescale facilities

Key words:  
Annotation:   Design seismic loads on buildings and structures can be determined by two methods: on the basis of the response spectra method and by time - history analysis using of real or synthesized accelerograms of earthquakes. In recent years to identify the actual strength, deformation and dynamic characteristics of buildings and structures in the process of deformation tests of actual objects have been widely used.
The authors propose a method of approximate analysis of the results of vibration tests, which is based on the spectral approach, which in terms of practical usage has a number of significant advantages as compared to others methods.
For the first time the concepts of “diagrams of system parameters changes in the process of inelastic deformation” (hereinafter referred to as “parameter diagrams”), “reaction spectra of conditional linear dissipative-unsteady systems” and “spectrum of states” of systems with changing dynamic characteristics are introduced in the paper.
To substantiate the proposed method of assessing the results of vibration tests, the analysis of experimental data obtained in the process of experimental studies of large-scale facilities of threedimensional buildings was performed.

Authors:    Polyakov S.V.    Kilimnik L.Sh.    Zhunusov T.Zh.    Itskov I.E.    Nikiporets G.L.   
Rubric:     Past publications   


Seismic Performance Evaluation of Soft Ground Storey RC Frame with Masonry Infill Considering Various Retrofit Strategies

Key words:   RC frame, masonry infill panel, nonlinear static Pushover-analysis, soft ground story, base isolation seismic retrofit technique, economic optimization procedure.
Annotation:   There is a representation of seismic performance evaluation method with due regard to economic effect assessment, which consider different seismic retrofit strategies applying for reinforced concrete (RC) soft ground story building with masonry infilled frame in upper stories. The dependencies, which allows to estimate the influence of masonry infill panel, located between structural columns and beams inside the RC frame, on the strength and stiffness, are shown. The analytical model simulation approach, which consider the influence of masonry infill panel on seismic response of the frame, is demonstrated. The analytical dependency, which allows to select the optimal seismic retrofit scheme for this kind of building with due regard to economic consideration, is applied. Two seismic retrofit strategies are analyzed in this study among with non-retrofitted (typical) one, where the first represents the base isolation technique implementation, and the second is the ground story RC columns strengthening by increasing their cross-section and area of reinforcements.
Issue:    №6 2019
Authors:    Faqiri A.    Rutman Yu.    Ivanov A.Y.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Techniques of Industrial Building Design and Synthesized Accelerogram Application

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The contemporary seismic design of nuclear power projects implies that in addition to intensity characterizing the level of seismic hazard for a construction area, the design response spectra are assigned as initial seismic effects. However, to carry out practical analyses of buildings and structures one needs seismic effect accelerograms that are generated using certain software. The paper provides one of the approaches to the accelerogram synthesis corresponding to the initial set of response spectra with various damping properties. The proposed synthesis technique is based on spectral analysis and multi-dimensional optimization methods.


Issue:   
Authors:    Durnovtseva S.A.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Methods of Design of Buildings with a Seismoisolating System in the Form of Metal-Rubber Supports

Key words:  
Annotation:   Lately there has been a growing interest of the country’s engineers to introduction of seismic isolation systems when constructing buildings in seismic areas. One of the most popular methods of seismic isolation is arrangement of metal-rubber supports (MRS) from high-damping rubber within a structure. The paper presents design methods for buildings using MRS and studies the response of such buildings to seismic loads.
Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.    Petryashev N.O.    Petryashev S.O.    Yun A.Ya.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Method of Calculation of Religious Buildings, Taking into Account their Occupancy in Relation to the Mosques at the Middle East

Key words:   Religious buildings, seismic resistance, number of people in the building, earthquake, combination, the Great Mosque of Aleppo
Annotation:   This article discusses the method of calculating mosques, taking into account the possible accumulation of a large number of people during religious events. The distribution of the number of people during the operation of the mosque is obtained and the coefficients of the combination of seismic load and the number of people present in the mosque are established. Combination coefficients were calculated for a seismically dangerous region of territory of the Syrian Arab Republic. The calculation of economic and social risks was also performed. An example of the calculation of the Great Mosque in the city of Aleppo is given.
Issue:    №2 2019
Authors:    Aldrebi Ziad Ahmad   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №4 2018
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerzhanov S.Е.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Methodological fundamentals for using stations of engineering seismometric service on buildings

Key words:  
Annotation:   Methodological fundamentals for application of the network of stations of Engineering Seis-mometric Service of KazNIISA JSC are described. Based on the type of problems being solved, all stations are divided into groups (polygons). Buildings located in close proximity to tectonic faults are gathered separately. Buildings equipped with seismic protection and analog house systems are situated at one site. Instrumental records processing means are analyzed – adjustment of zero baseline of the accelerogram according to the type of correlation function, building of accelerations distribution on azimuthal plane. Capabilities to process instrumental records over a long recording interval are analyzed. Recommendations are given for further development of Engineering Seismometric Service of KazNIISA JSC.

Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerzhanov S.Е.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Forecasting Methods of Seismic Ground Motion Parameters Estimation Including Local Spectrum and Related Synthetic Accelerogram Formation

Key words:  
Annotation:   The basic methods of assigning the earthquake effects are described. It is shown that the empirical estimations of seismic ground motion parameters without any assumptions, suppositions and pre-selected mathematical expressions have the highest accuracy. The methods of specific site spectra and the related synthetic accelerograms are described. The criteria of synthetic accelerogram fitness are presented.
Issue:   
Authors:    Aptikayev F.F.    Erteleva O.O.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Multi-level designing structures in tsunami-prone areas

Key words:   Multi-level design, combination coefficients, wave splash height, tsunami hazard, bridge categories
Annotation:  

The paper proposes a two-level approach to the calculation of structures for the tsunami effect. The concept of the design tsunami and the maximum design tsunami and their corresponding limit states is introduced. The estimated loads on the bridge piers from the design and maximum design tsunami are estimated, depending on the territory danger and the bridge responsibility. At the same time, bridges, in accordance with the approach adopted in transport construction, are divided according to their degree of responsibility into four categories. A formula is obtained to estimate the design splash value for the design and maximum design tsunami, depending on the bridge category. In addition, graphs are provided showing the frequency of the tsunami and the calculated wave height corresponding to this frequency. To estimate the combination coefficient of wind and tsunami loads, their equally probable pairs are considered. At the same time, the Weibull distribution is used to set the wind load, and for the tsunami load, the distribution given in the Code of Rules for Ensuring Tsunami Safety is used. Taking into account such load pairs is relevant for bridges with high piers, when the height of the splash does not exceed the pier height and there is a high probability of a simultaneous combination of wind and tsunami loads. The paper presents the calculations of surges for two types of tsunamis: the design one with a repeatability of once in 50 years and the maximum design one with a repeatability of once in 500 years for the Kamchatka region and the Kuril Islands for bridges of the first and second categories. Studies show that for the design tsunami and the maximum design tsunami, the coefficients of combinations with wind load differ significantly.

 


Issue:   
Authors:    Ottosha B. Sabirova   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Modal Damping Considering Soil Foundation

Key words:  
Annotation:   The simplest soil-structure platform model is considered in the paper. Soil foundation is modeled by six pairs of springs and viscous dampers. Impact of these soil dampers on the modal damping values is calculated by various methods and compared. First modal damping is calculated by direct approach, adding the contribution of the soil dampers to the modal damping value calculated for stand-alone structure model. Then alternative calculation is carried out using the substitution of the viscous damping by certain material damping — this approach makes it easy to obtain total modal composite damping for the further dynamic analysis. However it is demonstrated that for the first natural modes the alternative approach means the underestimation of modal damping, leading to the non-conservative results.
Issue:   
Authors:    Antonov N.A.    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Simulation of a Combination of Seismic and Wind Loads in Designing High-Rise Buildings

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper examines the main statements of the methodology of evaluating aerodynamic effects of wind currents on high-rise buildings. The authors present examples of simulating the velocity field of the air flow around the streamlined buildings and structures and of distributing the aerodynamic loads along the surfaces of buildings. Obtained mathematical modeling values of the pressure coefficient distribution along the surface of the building are compared with results of physical experiments.


Issue:   
Authors:    Gutnikov V. A.    Setuha A. V.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Monitoring of Hazardous Natural and Technogenic Processes On North Ossetia’s Territory

Key words:  
Annotation:   In connection with activation of hazardous natural processes in the Caucasus and, in particular, the descent of the Kolka glacier (on the 20th of September 2002) the Republic’s existing seismic observation network was transformed into the network of integrated observations “The Karmadon paramentric range”. The aim of the network operation is studies of natural and technogenic hazardous geological processes in mountain regions.
Issue:   
Authors:    Dzeranov B.V.    Mel’kov D.A.    Nevskaya N.I.    Shepelev V.D.   
Rubric:     Urban problems of seismic safety. monitoring of hazardous natural and man-made processes   


Monitoring of Seismic Processes on the Greater Sochi Territory: State-of-the Art and Future Considerations

Key words:  
Annotation:   The issues of seismological observation system state-of-the art on the Greater Sochi territory and its registration capacities are considered. The local and regional earthquake monitoring results for the past 40 years are presented. The trends in development of the monitoring system being established to control the Olympic construction and infrastructure projects in the vicinity of Krasnaya Polyana are described.
Issue:   
Authors:    Lavyorov N.P.    Malovichko A.A.   
Rubric:     Monitoring the state of natural-technical systems   


Technical State Monitoring for the Sports Complex Large-Span Roof

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper discusses the results of using methods of periodic (discrete) spatial engineering and seismological monitoring  at the finishing construction stage of the Sports Complex (Ulan-Ude). The micro-dynamic modal method informative content is shown in nondestructive testing both of individual elements and in monitoring of the changes in the state of large-span structures and in experimental estimate of design finite-element models approximation.


Issue:   
Authors:    Bazarov A.D.    Barannikov V.G.    Tatkov G.I.   
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


Bridge for Seismically Hazardous Areas

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The article represents the developed construction of antiseismic bridge, designed for operating in terms of considerable longitudinal and transverse horizontal seismic vibrations. The article also gives the results of the laboratory tests of such a bridge.

The antiseismic effect is achieved due to point contacts in the form of metal balls between span and mainstay of the bridge. These balls are free to move in horizontal plane since they are located in separate coaxial metal bowls of the span and bowls of the mainstay. These balls form the required construction gap between the span and the mainstay. The diameter of the bowls should exceed the magnitude of the seismic movements potential for this area. The laboratory tests of the bridge sample revealed that during the various rates imitation and horizonral vibrations’ accelerations they do not affect the bridge span. That means the bridge span stays still without any deformations or cavings during the free moving of the interim and coastal mainstays.

The proposed construction can be used during either new constructions or existing bridges reconstruction.


Issue:   
Authors:    Kulov A.R.    Kulov R.P.    Kulova Kh.R.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


The Most Important Aspects of Calculation and Designing the Basis of the Gravitational Supporting Wall for Seismic Load

Key words:   retaining wall, stability, sand backfill, base, soil liquefaction
Annotation:   The article outlines the most important aspects and summarizes the main results of the calcula-tion and design of a gravitational retaining wall reinforced concrete corner with a front con-sole and massive reinforced concrete on the seismic load. A comparative analysis of the calcu-lations for the operational case with static and seismic load for a wide range of input data is given. It is emphasized that during the design of the base of the retaining wall it is not al-lowed to liquefaction the sandy soils of the backfill and cushion at its base, which will lead to a catastrophic loss of the bearing capacity of the base soils and the stability of the retaining wall. To increase the stability of the structure of sandy soils, the liquefaction process should be applied by effective vibrodynamic methods of their compaction, developed by the author.
Issue:    №6 2019
Authors:    Minaev O.P.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Most suitable types of seismic isolation for use in old mosques in Syria

Key words:   seismic isolation, old mosques, Great Mosque of Aleppo, earthquake, seismic resistance, seismic strengthening, building structures, base isolation bearings
Annotation:   The article discusses the most suitable base
isolation bearings from the author's point of view for use in the buildings of
old mosques in Syria, which are designed to protect such buildings from the
effects of earthquakes that can occur at any time. Especially since many of
such buildings have an architectural and cultural value, and are included in
the world heritage list of UNESCO. Elastomeric
bearings with high energy dissipation capacity (HDRB), elastomeric bearings
with lead cores (LDRB), single friction pendulum, double friction pendulum and
triple friction pendulum sliding (FPS) bearings are considered. What they
consist of, their characteristics. Three, mosques in Syria that are of a great
value from the point of view of architecture and cultural heritage are listed
and described, and conclusions are drawn.
Issue:   
Authors:    Aldrebi Ziad Ahmad   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


THE REAL TEST ON THE BRIDGE ON THE MOVING LOADS

Key words:  
Annotation:   In this article deals with the test of the bridge on the moving load. Testing was conducted to determine the carrying capacity of the bridge for transportation on the impeller bridge for Kambar-Ata-2, with a total weight with trailer and towing vehicle 129 m. To solve this purpose visual inspection of the bridge were carried out, the bridge static test and the dynamic test the bridge. We obtain limit points for superstructures are more than moments of calculation, testing and carried excessive loads. According to the results of tests on the bridge transported excess load, the impeller for the Kambar-Ata-2 total weight of 129 tons.
Issue:   
Authors:    Apsemetov M.Ch.    Shekerbekov U.    Kurmanbek uulu Nurlan   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


THE REAL TEST OF THE BRIDGE IN THE EXPLOSION TO CREATE A NATURAL DAM

Key words:  
Annotation:   In this article deals with the study fluctuations in the beam of the bridge over Naryn river in the explosion at Kambar-Ata 2 for creating natural dams. Full-scale experiment was conducted to determine the dynamic parameters of the vibrations of the beam bridge, located near the explosion. The experiment was conducted using a portable engineering seismometric station Kyrgyz State University of Construction, Transport and Architecture. The study experimentally defined dynamic parameters of reinforced concrete beam bridge, the obtained records of displacement, acceleration of ground motion, the support and the span of the bridge. The results are processed and records fluctuations are the results of the study. The results dynamic parameters can be used in the calculation of bridges on the seismic effects.
Issue:   
Authors:    Apsemetov M.Ch.    Shekerbekov U.    Kurmanbek uulu Nurlan   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Full-Scale Dynamic Test for Seismic Stability Framework Universal Prefabrication Architectural and Construction System (FUPACS)

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article presents the results of dynamic tests on earthquake resistance of full-scale fragment of building with seismic isolation. Tests performed by Laboratory of aseismic constructions and innovative methods of seismoprotection EERC TSNIISK Named After V. A. Koucherenko on fragment which manufactured by developers of construction system in Tomsk. Tests were carried out in the framework of research complex for development and launch production technology used for construction of 12 storey apartment buildings at sites with increased seismic activity 7–8 points.
Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.    Petrosyan A.E.    Petryashev N.O.    Petryashev S.O.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Non-Classical Damping in the Soil-Structure System and Applicability of the Linear-Spectral Method to the Calculation of Forces

Key words:  
Annotation:   Previously the author has published several papers with analyses of three-mass system for the kinematical excitation applied at the platform. This is a rough model of a soil-structure system: lower spring and dashpot model soil, the rest of springs dashpots and masses model structure. The author compared direct and modal approaches with the initial and the cut-off damping values. The results were compared in the format of transfer functions and accelerations. In this paper the author compares the results in the format of internal forces, adding linear-spectral method to those mentioned above. It turns out that for narrow-banded excitation in certain frequency range the abnormal damping effect (increasing of response along with increasing of damping) is valid for internal forces, and not only for accelerations. Spectral approach gives the results close to the time-domain approach and does not change the main conclusions. For broad-banded excitations (like seismic one) the effect of damping is “normal”: cut-off damping leads to the increase in resulting forces. Results both for cut-off modal damping and for cut-off dashpot viscosity parameter are conservative as compared to the initial values. Spectral approach gives the results close to the time-domain approach, keeping the overall effect of damping. The main conclusion is that the frequency content of the excitation plays crucial role in the applicability of modal and spectral approaches to the dynamic analysis.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Some questions about own vibrations of structures in seismic insulation of constructions

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper deals with the determination of the natural frequencies of the span structures of bridges with seismic isolation. Formulas and graphs of the frequency equation of beams are proposed and compared by the results of other researchers for special cases
Issue:   
Authors:    Apsemetov M.Ch.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Some features of the mechanism of action of organo-mineral modifiers on cement systems

Key words:  
Annotation:   Some special features of the mechanism of action of ogano-mineral modifier on cement systems at early stages of structure formation. The research results of the effect of modifiers and their components on cement system characteristics, i.e. viscosity, setting time, the kinetics of plastic strength growth and heat release, are presented. It is shown that the colloidal-chemical and physical phenomena, based on a slow and portioned delivery of the organic component (superplasticizer) into a liquid phase of hydrating cement systems, and the saturation of cement systems with silica fume and fly ash, allow to control the rheological properties of concrete mixtures and directionally modify the structure of the cement paste.
Issue:   
Authors:    Kaprielov S.    Sheynfeld A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Some Features of Modeling Design Accelerograms

Key words:   modeling design accelerograms, dynamic calculations, synthetic accelerograms, Arias intensity
Annotation:   Summary:  At present, calculation of structures using earthquake accelerograms is becoming more and more important. However, the problem of modeling design accelerograms causes debates and contains various suggestions based on contradictory assumptions. Therefore, the value of complicated and time-consuming dynamic calculations can be rather dubious. The paper deals with some parameters of modeling design accelerograms. It is shown that the widely used method of input generation, developed by A.A. Dolgaya, gives rather rough approximations of synthetic accelerograms to real 
ones due to the insufficient number of model parameters.

Issue:    №1 2019
Authors:    Smirnova L.N.    Uzdin A.M.    Prokopovich S.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


SOME FEATURES OF SEISMIC ISOLATION DESIGNING IN THE CONDITION OF LIMITED INFORMATION ABOUT THE SEISMIC IMPACT

Key words:  
Annotation:   The basic design principles of seismic isolation systems in the absence of seismological data for the construction site are considered. This situation occurs in the preliminary stages of design, the design of objects of mass building, as well as in a typical design. To this end, it proposed to use the linearized motion equations and universal temporal processes to modeling accelerograms. The stated procedure is implemented in the design of seismic isolation systems of railway bridges in Sochi.
Issue:   
Authors:    Nikonova N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Some Comments on the New Generation of Standards in Earthquake Engineering. Part I: General Requirements and Seismic Input. Part II: Seismic Forces in Linear-spectral Method.

Key words:   seismic input, linear spectral method, Standards in earthquake engineering, dangerous directions of the seismic excitation
Annotation:   The author gives his comments on the already started process of the revision of Russian Standards in earthquake engineering. He submits certain recommendations on the process and some recommendations of the general format of the new generation of Standards. Then the author in details discusses the seismic input in the Standards. The goal of the present text is not to give answers, but rather to stress main questions and to list the points where the authors of the future Standard will have to make a certain choice between alternatives. The author describes the alternative solutions for these choices. Some of such issues follow. The multi-level seismic input; the format of the seismic input required from seismologists, the non-exceedance level for seismic input; the location of the control point where seismic input is given. Besides, the issues of the intensity degrees and peak accelerations, the shape of the normalized response spectra, the composition of the wave fild (i.e. non-vertical seismic waves) are also discussed. Finally, the authors comments on the «dangerous directions of the seismic excitation» concept.
The author submits certain recommendations on the description of the linear-spectral analysis. Principal text is accompanied by the Comments. The author suggests the following changes. Matrix equations are introduced, as matrix calculations correspond to the current level of analysis. Mass matrix is populated (and not diagonal, as previously used). Residual mode is introduced as an alternative to the achievement of 95% total mass by the accumulation of modal masses. Seismic excitation is three-component without non-physical “dangerous directions” concept. Normalized spectra, responsibility coeffient, modifid damping coeffient are explained explicitly. Coeffient of non-linear response is applied to certain parts, and not to the whole structure. In the combination of modal responses the inter-correlation of the low-frequency modal responses is explicitly accounted for. If the suggested terms are fulfiled, the linear-spectral analysis should give the results like the time-domain analysis (provided response spectra are calculated from the actual components used in the time domain analysis). At the same time there is a certain smooth transition from the previous codes.


Issue:    №5 2019
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Non-Linear Vibrations and Earthquake Resistance of Three-Layer Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper explores the problem of earthquake resistance and non-linear vibration of three-layer rectangular plates with layers made from various continuously non-homogeneous materials. Using Kirkhof-Lyav hypothesis for the element total thickness, the author has obtained the sets of equations describing the plate movement with account of geometrical nonlinearity. By means of Bubnov-Galyorkin method the plate frequency response characteristics are determined.
Issue:   
Authors:    Guseynov S. A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Nonlinear Properties of Soils (Part II)

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The parameters that are closely related to the absorption and soil nonlinearity were identified based on the analysis of instrumental records of strong motions. The empirical formulas connecting the areas of normalized and real spectra with the parameters of seismic action (magnitude, acceleration, epicentral distance, duration and weighted average frequency of ground motion) were obtained using regression analysis. The differences of absorption mechanism in dispersed (soft) and rocky soils were defined. The models of ground strata behavior in the case of variable intensity of dynamic action on the basis of consideration of the real area of the spectrum and the average value of the frequency, characterized by a linear and nonlinear elastic-inelastic deformation of the soils are offered.


Issue:   
Authors:    Zaalishvili V.B.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Nonlinear Properties of Soils (Part I)

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The various aspects of the nonlinear properties of soils that are clearly exerted under strong loadings are considered in the present work. Nonlinear properties being the most important indicator of soils, as a rule, are not sufficiently taken into account during seismic hazard assessment and are limited by so-called geometric nonlinearity that is well described by the corresponding equations.

Behavior of soil stratum under impact of artificial source is reliably described by the hysteresis damping model. By changing duration of exposure it is possible to observe the reaction of corresponding amounts of soil strata, what supposes the need to solve most problems of seismic microzonation (SMZ) experimentally. This, in particular, makes it necessary to carefully analyze and further compare records of real and artificial impacts. Such an approach by analyzing records of Racha earthquake (Georgia, 1991) made it possible to identify and justify the application as new indicators of ground movement – areas of normalized and real spectra of ground motion. Further analysis made it possible to introduce indices of actual absorption and nonlinearity that are also based on their relationships with the spectral characteristics of the ground motion. The corresponding empirical formulas obtained. Selection of the most appropriate indicators of nonlinearity for practical use involves focused investigations.


Issue:   
Authors:    Zaalishvili V.B.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Nonlinear static method of analysis of seismic resistance of buildings and structures

Key words:  
Annotation:   Nonlinear static method (Pushover Analysis) a widely used abroad, based on the method of bearing capacity of the spectrum. The paper describes in detail the methodology of nonlinear static analysis taking into account the possibility of using national regulatory literature. The analysis of hypotheses and assumptions in the calculation of structures to earthquakes nonlinear static method that allows you to design a simple and regular buildings and structures with a given level of security on the basis of seismic stability of load-bearing structures Paddy criterion. The procedure for the nonlinear static method is analyzed on the example of a simple system. The resulting convergence of the calculation results in the above example showed the accuracy of the implementation of the automated calculation of the nonlinear static method in LIRA 10.4.
Issue:   
Authors:    Bulushev S.V.    Dzhinchvelashvili G.A.    Kolesnikov A.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Bearing Capacity of Concrete Columns with Mixed Reinforcement under Earthquake-Type Loads

Key words:  
Annotation:   The results of experimental studies in behavior of concrete columns with different reinforcement types (conventional, prestressed and mixed reinforcement) in single-storey frame buildings under low-cycle alternate static and dynamic earthquake type loads are presented.
Issue:   
Authors:    Abakanov M.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


New construction of a large-span cable crane

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper considers the cargo transportation system state of Kyrgyzstan’s railways in the context of cargo flows intensification, as well as a production string for loading and unloading operations on railways and a new design of a bridge cable crane. Implementation of bridge span structure, hinge core and cables in the crane structure solves the problem of increasing the crane span and technological hooks, which will allow for a qualitative optimization of cargo transportation systems.
Issue:   
Authors:    Nuraiym Askar kyzy   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


New design for a railway track

Key words:  
Annotation:   A new railway design is proposed based on counteraction to dynamic forces.
Issue:   
Authors:    Nuraiym Askar kyzy   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


New Constructive Systems of Residential and Civil Buildings and Problems of Actualization of Seismic Norms

Key words:   modern design systems, earthquake-resistant construction, actualization of seismic norms
Annotation:  

The article examines the application of new design systems in seismic areas and the suitability of seismic standards for their design.

 


Issue:    №3 2020
Authors:    Khakimov Sh.A.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


New Concept for Improving the Seismic Safety of Buildings Based on Engineering Analysis of the Effects of Earthquakes

Key words:  
Annotation:   The report discusses some new concepts of design and construction of earthquake safe masonry, frame-panel buildings and individual houses built from low-strength materials. New concepts are based on the results of the engineering analysis of the effects of earthquakes in recent years, which occurred in the territory of Central Azia.
Issue:   
Authors:    Khakimov Sh.A.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


On the Influence of Seasonal Changes in the Resonant Properties of Surface Soils on Seismic Safety of Structures

Key words:   natural oscillations of the building, seismic safety, resonance properties of the foundation bed, seasonal changes, passive seismic observations
Annotation:   The results of field experiments to assess the possible influence on seismic safety of structures of seasonal changes in the resonant properties of the underlying subsurface soils are given. The natural frequencies of a ten-story residential building and the surface soil layer were determined from passive (noise) seismic acoustic measurements made at the end of January and the end of June. The results of the experiments showed that in areas with climatic conditions characterized by alternation of long periods of positive and negative temperatures, the resonance properties of the surface soil layer during the year can vary more significantly than the properties of the structures built on them. At certain periods, such changes can lead to the coincidence of some natural frequencies of the soil layer and the structures standing on it, which ultimately  reduces their seismic safety.
Issue:    №3 2019
Authors:    Kolesnikov Yu.I.    Fedin K.V.    Ngomayezwe L.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On Possibility of External Shock-Proof Devices

Key words:  
Annotation:   It is proved that the capacities of external shock-proof devices may be more efficient than conventional seismic isolation (inside buildings). There is an underestimation of these opportunities, including provisions of current regulations that do not even comprise the relevant concepts.
The experience of extant ancient structures is underestimated, as well as the examples of unique contemporary earthquake-resistant structures.
On the basis of computer and physical laboratory modeling it is shown that arrangement of a sliding layer under the continuous foundation plate can serve as the external design seismic protection  barrier with the design seismic action (for example, not higher than 5 points) not transferred to the  building above the barrier level.
Issue:   
Authors:    Abovsky N.P.    Deordiyev S.V.    Inzhutov I.S.    Palagushkin V.I.    Khoroshavin Ye.A.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


About Possibility of Use of the High Pile Grillage as the Seismoisolation Element for the Buildings Built in Permafrost Regions

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Research of buildings in permanent frost area shown that using of the I principle of building is an acceptable way to secure constructions. The high pilework is common and an acceptable way of realization of the I principle. Besides, high pilework make functions of seismic isolation. Researchings of buildings with high pilework in 7, 8, 9 point seismic areas show that increasing of «free» length of pile increase period of oscillations. This decrease seismic load, but increase square of reinforcement. Acceptable section for 7-point area is 40x40 cm for reinforced piles. In higher than 7-point areas using other different constructions of piles or dampers is required.      


Issue:   
Authors:    Tatiana A. Belash    Sergeev D.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On the possibility of redistribution of loads from the aggregate in silos as a result of seismic impacts

Key words:   seismic impacts, silos, aggregate, vibration compaction, precipitation, development of friction forces, calculations, experimental data, placeholder hanging, increased pressure on walls
Annotation:   Based on the calculation justification and analysis of experimental data, it is shown that in silos, as in hydraulic structures of cellular construction, as a result of seismic influences, in addition to inertial mass forces and alternating pressures of the filler on the walls, additional pressures associated with an increase in its hanging on the walls and the redistribution of loads that persist for a certain time may arise. The resulting pressures on the walls can be determined according to the author's formula and for a sand aggregate exceed static ones: 1.57 times – lateral, 1.2 times – vertical, associated with the development of friction forces The reason for the occurrence of load redistribution is the development of friction forces at the walls, which occurs as a result of aggregate precipitation during vibration compaction as a result of seismic influences. This phenomenon can be observed in silos, in which large values of dynamic coefficients arise during fluctuations. Calculations supported by experimental data show that under 9-point seismic impacts, the redistribution of loads with an increase in pressure to the above values can be observed along the entire height in silos with sand aggregate up to 25 m high with a diameter of 3m to 6 m, and in silos with a diameter of 8 m – in the upper part to a depth of 13 m. At 8-point seismic impacts, this phenomenon can occur in silos with small diameters of 3m and 4m with an increase in pressure in their upper part with a depth of 3m to 5m, and at 7-point – it covers only the upper part of structures with a depth of 1...1.5 m, that is, practically absent.
Issue:    #4 2021
Authors:    Sharkov Vyacheslav P.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On site coefficients

Key words:  
Annotation:   Introduction into practice of engineering-seismological researches of the description of seismic impacts by instrumental characteristics demands use of site coefficients for the account of influence of structure features and characteristics of the top part of a geological section. The article shows that the site coefficients, at least in the field of linear representations, can be uniquely describe through a single parameter of the soils – the average seismic rigidity of the 30-meter thickness composing the upper part of the cut. Simple relations allowing determining the response spectrum of soil by parameters of the soil model are deriving. By means of site coefficients, it is possible to construct a response spectrum of a soil model and to calculate necessary characteristics of seismic impacts. In the field of nonlinear coupling of soil model properties and seismic effects parameters, it is proposing to use reduction coefficients.
Issue:   
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


About Dynamic Range of SMZ

Key words:   seismic microzonation, seismic channel, dynamic range, seismic impacts, soil rigidity, soil coefficient, response spectrum, the dynamic factor, modeling, non-linear properties
Annotation:   In this paper, the system of seismic microzoning (SMZ) is considered from an information point of view in the form of a seismic channel, one of the most important characteristics of which is the concept of dynamic range. The question of the value of the dynamic range for each of the applied SMZ techniques is studied in detail. In addition to purely academic interest, the solution of this problem will allow to correctly assess the contribution of various factors (seismic stiffness, spectral features, nonlinearity, etc.) to the total value of seismic intensity and thus contribute to improving the efficiency of SMZ.
Issue:    №3 2019
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


On Building Earthquake-Resistance Assessment Dependability on the Basis of Diagnostics Results by the Low-Intensity Impulse Input Method

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper presents the results of the analysis of buildings’ technical state and earthquake resistance estimation procedures based on the diagnostics data by the low-intensity impulse input. A comparative analysis of buildings’ dynamic characteristics variation under the changes of structural rigidity parameters is presented. A comparative analysis of load-bearing capacities for structural elements with different rigidities is provided.


Issue:   
Authors:    Kabantsev O.V.   
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


The advantages and disadvantages of the NEHRP soil classification

Key words:   seismic soils properties classification, site class, model, response spectrum, dynamic coefficient, average model, shear wave velocity, seismic rigidity, continuity
Annotation:  

The influence of local ground conditions on the parameters of seismic vibrations is the subject of study in seismic microzonation. This section of engineering seismology underwent radical changes at the end of the last century. The Commission on Seismic Safety of the National Institute of Building Sciences of the United States, as part of the implementation of the National Earthquake Damage Reduction Program, developed new NEHRP Recommendations, which are significantly different from all that has been used in the world practice of anti-seismic construction. The main provisions of this NEHRP classification have been adopted in many national building codes, including Eurocode 8 and Kazakhstan's seismic regulations. One of the essential features of the classification is the use of the average values of the velocities of transverse waves and the densities of the ground thickness with a thickness of 30 meters. In Russia, the provisions of the NEHRP norms have not yet been properly developed. Currently, the issue of extending the norms of Kazakhstan to the entire territory of the CIS countries is being considered. For this reason, the article examines in detail both the advantages and disadvantages of the NEHRP Recommendations in order to extract useful experience and adapt to the realities of Russian anti-seismic construction. In particular, the error in the representation of the parameters of the soil mass by average values is shown. The ways of overcoming the identified shortcomings of the description of the soil mass with the help of model representations are outlined


Issue:   
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


On Protection of Buildings and Structures against Progressive Collapse

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Annotation:  

This paper is devoted to the state-of-the-art regulatory documents referring to design of buildings of high importance and related to the problem of their protection against progressive collapse. The paper also comprises suggestions on drawing up of technical documents ensuring comprehensiveness of design solutions concerning safety of buildings and structures in the aspect under consideration.


Issue:   
Authors:    Krantsfeld Ya.L.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Compressed Structures Modeling of Hard Protection Constructions of Solid Section With Spiral Reinforcement (Part 2)

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The author produces main points of physics modeling experimental research of rod-shape elements of solid section of hard shield constructions with spirals during statistical pressure and all results are analyzed. Considerable increase of axial strain (not less than in 2-3 times) is detected. The author studies peculiarities of changes of strained and deformated condition during elastic, elasto-plastic and plastic stage of destruction. Two types of destruction are discovered: first is connected with clamps (µcir > µx) breach and second – with spirals (µx > µcir) at reaching maximum and minimum strength respectively. The author suggests limiting condition on beam strength to normalize to deformed criteria which are settled on typical points of diagrams ?-? of helical reinforced concrete. The structure of strengthening and deformability indicators is defined and consists of 3 components: contribution of the concrete and two additives from its cogging by spirals and clamps.  


Issue:   
Authors:    Ivanov A.U.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Compressed Structures Modeling of Hard Protection Constructions of Solid Section With Spiral Reinforcement (Part 2)

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The author studies prospective ways of constructive solution development of ferroconcrete constructions of hard protection of higher lengthwise deformation. The author proposes a constructive solution «clip in clip», which consists of internal (separate lengthwise spirals) and external (cross clamps) clips. The author reviews general approach to mathematical and physical modeling of constructions’ state in use for intended purpose. Physical model experimental studies are recommended to plan within two connected modeling sub-areas, which are responsible for forming of external pressure (area 1) and its further interaction with construction (area 2). In second area the author points out the importance of compliance with conditions of geometric similarity and similarity of used constructive materials (concrete and reinforcing steel) implemented by making a sequence of separate interconnected tests and each test reflects respective physical component of modeling. The author proposes to use deformation diagram ?-? of constructive materials as a general figure which connects physical and mathematical modeling of nature of ongoing interaction process. The author assumes the possibility of usage of computational methods of mathematical modeling as a way of transposition of physical model results on real existing condition.


Issue:   
Authors:    Ivanov A.U.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On the need to change the calculation schemes for seismic resistance in building codes and rules (BRandR)

Key words:   seismic resistance, new payment schemes, bending wave, inertial forces, internal friction
Annotation:   With the kinematic excitation of a cantilever rod, it has been shown that flexural-shear oscillations begin at the free end of the rod. In this case, internal bulk forces arise in the rod, which oppose 1/2 f (x, t) to external force, and at the free end of the rod, an associated pair F (l, t) and M (l, t) arise. This coupled pair is the true cause of flexural-shear vibrations. The second part of the force f (x,t) goes to create purely shear vibrations.
From the developed new gravitational-vortex theory of seismic stability, it follows that in the design schemes for one-dimensional models there is a fourfold reserve (reserve) for the assessment of forces and moments in the sections of a homogeneous rod. These capabilities make it possible to increase the acceleration on the seismic zoning maps at least twice and to bring the accelerations observed during strong and destructive earthquakes into line with the accelerations used in BRandR.
Issue:    #5-2021
Authors:    Hovhannisyan Sevada M.    Karapetyan John K.    Geodakyan Edward G.    Sahakyan Babken V.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


About New Types of Reinforcing Rolled Metal for Earthquake Engineering

Key words:   reinforcing bars, endurance, double-sided multi-row profile, deformability, beyond the stage of plastic deformation, strength, earthquake engineering, adhesion to concrete, cyclic dynamic loading
Annotation:   As a result of the release of GOST 34028-2016 «Reinforcing bars for reinforced concrete structures» the manufacturability of new kinds of reinforcing bars, taking into account the needs of different areas of construction were increased. The materials of the present study prove the ability of reinforcement with a multi-row (six-row and screw four-row) arrangement of transverse ribs on its surface to maintain adhesion with concrete even at the stage of exceeding the limit values of deformation. This factor, as well as high endurance at cyclic dynamic effects, possibility of connection using couplings of four-row screw reinforcing bars and anchoring it with nuts, expands the possibilities of using the new valves not only in earthquake engineering, but also in nuclear power, transport and other types of construction. The new reinforcing bars of domestic production are able to gain a leading position not only in the domestic but also in foreign construction markets.
Issue:    №6 2019
Authors:    Tihonov N.I.    Smirnova L.N.    Bubis A.A.    Tikhonov G.I.    Safonov A.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On Regulation of Rehabilitation and Earthquake-Proof Strengthening Methods for Existing Building Systems

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper considers the issues of regulation of the rehabilitation and earthquake-proof strengthening methods of existing building systems envisaged in Uzbekistan’s new code draft “Rehabilitation and Earthquake-Proof Strengthening of Existing Buildings and Structures”. It is proposed to consider certain factors such as service life of a building, the category of importance and strength reserves of various structural types of existing buildings to be strengthened when measures to ensure their seismic safety or earthquake resistance are specified.


Issue:   
Authors:    Khakimov Sh.A.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Practical Application of the Method of Dynamic Tests for Evaluation of the Category of Technical State and Seismic Stability of Buildings and Constructions in Weak and Strong Pulse Influences

Key words:  
Annotation:   In the article there are given the research results of using the method of dynamic tests of buildings for hardness gap assessment of weak and strong seism impulse impacts. Distinguished to the opinion of O.V. Kabantsev, stated in the article on the unreliability of the results of the deficit rigidity assessment on the basis of the results of diagnostics by the method of pulsed influence of low intensity, the authors cite numerous theoretical and experimental data showing the fallacy of O.V. Kabantsev judgment and sensitivity of the method of dynamic tests to the rigidity change of buildings and constructions. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Galiullin R.R.    Larionov V.I.    Nigmetov G.M.    Savin S.N.    Samarin V.V.    Sushchev S.P.   
Rubric:     Viewpoints   


On the Use of Large-Sized Structural Stones from Porous Ceramics in Erection of Energy-Efficient Buildings Including Those in Seismic Areas

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper presents the results of studies in strength, deformability and crack resistance of masonry from economy stones of the new generation made of porous ceramics. The low K-value of this masonry allows erecting enclosing structures without efficient heat insulation with high resistance to heat transfer meeting the requirements of the current regulatory documents. The analysis of crack resistance of the masonry using the above stones has shown that with high-strength mortars (M125 and higher) the ratio of the load at first crack to fracture load diminishes to the values of 0.51-0.58. This factor allows recommending large-sized stones from porous ceramics in erection of energy-efficient buildings including those in seismic areas.


Issue:   
Authors:    Gorbunov A.M.    Pavlova M.O.    Ponomaryov O.I.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Contribution of damping to the dynamic loads in seismic analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:   Development of linear equations of motion for seismic analysis is discussed in the paper. Surprisingly, there are still some non-trivial issues. The paper is a polemic one: the author does not agree with colleagues putting damping matrix into the right-hand part of the equation of motion. In the author’s opinion, the mistake is in the implementation of the Rayleigh damping model for the right-hand part of the equation. This is in the contradiction with physical logic, as damping in the Rayleigh model is not really “internal”: due to the participation of the mass matrix it works on rigid displacements, which is impossible for internal damping. The author is sure that physical logic should have a priority against any approximate mathematical model, so the contribution of the internal damping to the right-hand part of the equation shall be excluded before this or that model of internal damping is chosen. Besides, the author asks two more questions about the internal forces calculations. He hopes to get response from the colleagues on these issues.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №5 2018
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


On the Spectral Characteristics of the Soil Massif

Key words:  
Annotation:   The regulatory framework for seismic microzoning in Russia has recently been supplemented by a number of new generation documents. In particular, the document SP 283.1325800.2016 was adopted. In it for the description of spectral characteristics of a soil thickness the value of a maximum of coefficient of dynamism b was used. The scope of the normative document did not allow to describe in detail the method of obtaining and features of the use of this parameter, which is why it turned out to be an unusual innovation for prospectors. The article describes in detail how this value is obtained and how to use it. The ways of setting the standard values of the dynamic coefficient are analyzed. It is shown that the standard values do not cover the range of possible variations in both the properties of seismic effects and the reactions of the soil mass to these effects. The values of the maximum coefficient of dynamism can be significantly higher than the current normative values of 2.5. The importance of taking into account the internal structure of the soil mass is shown. Instead of soil categories the basic concept of construction, the defining features of engineering-seismological investigations in the study area, it is proposed to use the notion of model ground conditions. Special attention is paid to the consideration of nonlinear phenomena under strong seismic impacts. The effect of the nonlinearity of the stress-strain relationship on the spectral characteristics of the soil layer under strong seismic impacts is studied. It is shown that the nonlinearity significantly reduces the intensity of resonance processes in the soil massif. 

Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


About Requirements of New Normative Documents to Reinforcing of Reinforced Concrete Designs for Construction in Seismic Areas

Key words:   design code, reinforcing bar, screw fittings, coupling box, the strength of adhesion to concrete
Annotation:   To meet the safety requirements in the design of reinforced concrete structures in seismically hazardous areas, it is important to ensure the dissipation of seismic input energy in structures when their progressive collapse is included. For this purpose, plastic deformation of the calculated sections of reinforced concrete structures with the opening of cracks in reinforced concrete is allowed much higher than the maximum permissible. These conditions can be met, when a number of design requirements are met. These requirements are reflected in regulatory documents for the design and manufacture of building structures and materials, including reinforcing bar. The article present a comparative analysis of the requirements that have recently been published at normative technical documents, namely the SP 14.13330 and the standard of the organization «Earthquake engineering», and also requirements of the state standard «Reinforcing bar for reinforced concrete design» in relation to design for seismically dangerous areas are stated and explained. So, as one of the possible options, the authors consider the advantages of using screw fittings, for connecting rods with screw fittings it is recommended to replace welded joints with screw couplings.

Issue:    №1 2019
Authors:    Tihonov N.I.    Smirnova L.N.    Bubis A.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


On the Updated Seismic Zoning Maps of the Russian Federation Territory OSR-97* and OSR-2012

Key words:  
Annotation:  

At present within the framework of the Federal Target Program (FTP) «Increasing resistance of dwelling houses, basic life-supporting facilities and systems in seismic areas of the Russian Federation for 2009-2014», the Design Research Institute of Engineering Surveys in Construction (OAO PNIIIS) in cooperation with specialists from the Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences, carries out updating of seismic zoning maps of the Russian Federation territory. Due to the importance of the country’s seismic zoning, this work needs detailed and comprehensive discussion. This paper deals with scientific discussion of this work results.
It is shown that in making the OSR-97* and OSR-2012 maps, the earthquake engineering data on the regional parameters of seismic wave radiation and propagation on Russia’s territory, being necessary for calculations, were not used. This information is virtually unavailable:  OSR-97* and OSR-2012 maps, as well as previous OSR-97 maps, only one value of quality factor Q~150 at frequency f = 1 Hz is used for the vast territory of Russia, together with the relationships between seismic intensity and peak ground accelerations, obtained for California (USA) - the region with its own features, which are not typical for Russia. All this leads to substantial errors, especially, in mapping under peak ground accelerations.


Issue:   
Authors:    Pavlenko O.V.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


About Intensity of Fluctuations of Construction Designs of «Wet» Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Earthquake

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Pools for the long term storage of spent nuclear fuel are extremely dangerous buildings. Their seismic resistance is very important and topical theme. Design feature of such structures is the presence of a rigid bottom and flexible frame top, which is most vulnerable to earthquakes.

The article considers the influence of various factors on the intensity of the vibrations of flexible frame top оf VVER-1000 spent nuclear fuel repository during earthquake. These factors are: soil stiffness, frequency composition of the initial impact and functioning capacity of repository.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tatiana A. Belash    Travin Sergei M.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


One of the Possible Experimental Way to Determine the Tangent Adhesion Between the Concrete (Mortar) and Stone by Testing the Samples Under Torsion

Key words:  
Annotation:  

This article presents the results of experimental tests to determine the tangent adhesion between concrete (mortar) and tuff stone. A special device was designed to allow us to determine the tangent adhesion strength for the samples tested under pure torsion.

The test results for samples with square cross-section tested under pure torsion on the designed device are presented. The test results for eight-shape samples, which were made from the same concrete mixtures and tested for fracture (normal adhesion), were also presented as a comparison.

Testing the samples under pure torsion allowed us to define the ratio of tangent and normal adhesion strengths of lightweight concrete and tuff stone. It ranges from 2.0 to 4.0, which is considerably higher than the one presented in certain publications (it ranges from 1.5 to 2.5). Presumably this variation may be explained by the different techniques that were used to define the value of tangent adhesion of concrete (mortar) and tuff stone.


Issue:   
Authors:    Markaryan T.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Experimental determination of the coefficient of longitudinal interaction of soil and pipeline under seismic vibrations

Key words:   underground pipeline, laws of interaction with the ground, coefficient of longitudinal interaction, seismic problems, theory of experiment
Annotation:  

In engineering approaches to calculating the seismic resistance of underground structures, in particular pipelines, it is important to find experimentally the forces of interaction with the ground, as this frees us from the need to solve a difficult dynamic problem for the ground (elastic or having more complex mechanical properties). In this work inaccuracies are corrected and further development of the known from literature theory of quasistatic experiment for determining the coefficient of longitudinal interaction of soil and underground pipeline in seismic problems is given. It is shown that only the second approximation for the named coefficient in the expansion with a small parameter, equal to the ratio of the length of the pipe sample to the length of the seismic wave, takes into account the longitudinal deformation of the pipe; the first approximation corresponds to the experiment with an absolutely rigid pipe.

A
strict reduction of the seismic problem to the problem for relative pipeline
movements is presented. Conditions are found on the external (remote from the
pipe) boundaries of the soil, the fulfillment of which ensures the correctness
of determining the coefficient of longitudinal interaction for seismic problems
in experiments
Issue:   
Authors:    Israilov M.    Hasambiev M.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


About Fundamentals For Insurance of Seismic Resistance of Transport Tunnels

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The problem of maintenance of seismic stability of transport tunnels is considered. Basis of reliable work of tunnels in seismic areas is complex compliance with the developed principles of design, including tracing, calculation, design обделок, the control over construction and creation of system of engineeringseismometric stations (ESS).

ESS allow to supervise a condition of tunnels in case of earthquakes and to provide measures under the prevention of the secondary negative phenomena (a fire, a derailment of a rolling stock) at set the maximum allowable threshold fluctuations of a soil file at earthquakes.


Issue:   
Authors:    Dorman I.Y.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


On Stability and Seismic Resistance of Three-Layer Non-Homogeneous Round Plates under Seismic Impact

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper provides the stability and seismic resistance analysis of three–layer non-homogeneous round plates under seismic impact. The elastic properties of the material layers are supposedly functions of thickness and radius. All basic relationships and the system of stability equations for a round plate have been obtained. In the case of the plate built-in edges the stability equation is solved by the Bubnov-Galerkin method and the formula for the critical load is obtained.


Issue:   
Authors:    Aкhmedov E.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Consideration of the vertical load from a tsunami on bridge structures

Key words:   tsunami resistance, load from tsunami, bridge, bridge span structure, modelling of the wave roll-up
Annotation:  

A significant part of the territory of the Russian Federation is exposed to various natural disasters. One of the most destructive are tsunami waves. At the same time, for the development of these territories, there is a need for the development of transport infrastructure, which implies, among other things, the design of bridges. To ensure the reliability of bridges in the event of tsunami, it is necessary to fully take into account the possible impacts from these waves. In Russia, there is a document to determine the load from the tsunami. But, despite the existence of this document, the issue of taking into account the loads from the tsunami on various structures remains relevant. In particular, there are no clear guidelines for accounting for vertical loads from tsunami waves on bridge structures. With the help of the studies carried out on computer modelling of the wave roll-up on the bridge structure, this article proves the need to take into account the vertical loads from the tsunami, and also proposes a method for determining its numerical values. This study can complement the basic methodology for determining the loads from tsunami waves on bridge structures and help designers fully account for this dangerous natural disaster.


Issue:   
Authors:    Anton D. Yakovlev   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


On Environmental Aspects of a Modern Urbanized Territory under Strong Earthquakes

Key words:  
Annotation:   In view of the increasing man’s impact the environment protection has become a global problem. One of the most hazardous natural phenomena on the mountainous terrain is an earthquake. Beside its direct destructive effect the earthquake can cause environmental catastrophes in areas with industrial facilities producing or processing hazardous chemicals. To assess the ecological state of the area we have studied the development of tumors as a bound parameter among the residents of the urbanized highlands using the city of Vladikavkaz as an example.
Issue:   
Authors:    Beriyev O.G.    Burdziyeva O.G.    Zaks T.V.   
Rubric:     Monitoring the state of natural-technical systems   


About Impact on Economic After a Strong Earthquake

Key words:  
Annotation:   a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:772:"

It’s well known that strong earthquake negatively affects the gross domestic product and thus the welfare of the population. The initial decrease in revenues and expenditures causes the multiple reductions of revenues and expenses in the economic system. This effect is called the multiplier effect. For Russia this effect is approximately equal to two. Thus, if the earthquake causes revenues decrease by $ 100, then the GDP will decrease by $ 200.

Benefits of the contribution of small additional investments to increase the earthquake resistance of buildings than subsequent expenditures of hundreds of millions for recovery from catastrophic earthquakes caused by the mismatch of the calculated and actual occurrence of earthquakes is shown.

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Issue:   
Authors:    Arhireeva I.G.    Zaalishvili Z.V.   
Rubric:     Seismic risk and damage   


The Effective Use of Structural Systems of Buildings With Suspended Structures

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article presents the results of studies the buildings suspended type in seismic areas. The study contains a comparative analysis of various constructive schemes. Then it was revealed the best option and made a trial design of a suspended type of building. Calculations were performed in software and computing complex SOFiSTiK, based on the finite element method. The study showed that the use of suspension systems can significantly reduce the load on the building structure of the seismic action. Suspended buildings have both advantages and some of the features that complicate its construction. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Tatiana A. Belash    Rybakov P.L.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Ensuring Integrated Seismic Safety on the Russian Federation Territory within the framework of the Federal Target Program “Increasing stability of residential buildings, basic structures and life-support systems in seismic areas of the Russian Federation

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper presents the conceptual issues of the Federal Target Program “Increasing stability of residential buildings, basic structures and life-support systems in seismic areas of the Russian Federation for 2009 - 2014”. The research tools for the integrated seismic safety monitoring of the RF territory, proposals and additions to update the current normative documents are formulated.
Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.    Vorontsova N.Yu.    Smirnov V. I.    Sushkov P.A.   
Rubric:     Monitoring the state of natural-technical systems   


Review of typical accidents with vertical cylindrical storage tanks during earthquake

Key words:  
Annotation:   A significant quantity of vertical cylindrical storage tanks is being built in earthquake-prone regions. The present paper gives data on tank accidents as a result of seismic events of the 20th and 21st centuries and describes typical incidents and their scenarios during the earthquakes in Coaling (California, USA), Niigata, Tokachi-Oki and Tohoku (Japan), Emilia (northern Italy). During the research work, risk factors and typical consequences of accidents were analyzed for tanks of different sizes. Some recommendations for increasing seismic resistance of storage tanks are given as a result of the analysis.
Issue:   
Authors:    Shigapov R.R.    Kovalchuk O.A.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Substantiation of an Efficiency of Seismo-Protective Belt by Spatial Design of The Building

Key words:  
Annotation:   Substantiation of an efficiency of the work of special constructive units forming a seismo-protective belt set in the foundation of the building and aimed to decrease seismic loads during the earthquakes, is given in the paper. Research is carried out on the basis of spatial model of a building, presenting a high box-like structure with intermediate floors and real geometry. Spatial models and used finite element discretization allow the authors to consider a complex dynamics of the building under multi-component seismic effect. The study of dynamic characteristics — frequencies and modes of natural vibrations and relative deformation, listed in normative documents, when determining a conditional seismic load, is carried out on the basis of comparison of results obtained for two spatial models of 9‑storey building; these models differing in boundary conditions in the foundation: standard building (on rigid foundation) and the building on seismic-protective supports. The comparison was performed also with data of field experiments for two similar buildings, its results affirmed the positive conclusions on efficiency of the installation of seismo-protective belts.
Issue:   
Authors:    Ayubov G.T.    Rumi D.F.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Study of the seismic safety state of building structures for cultural and historic buildings in Tajikistan

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper presents the main results of the visual inspection of technical condition of the cultural and historic building structures in Tajikistan and establishes cause-effect relations of their temporary physical deterioration, assessment of building structures and recommendations for development of an integrated system approach to preservation of historic stone buildings.
Issue:   
Authors:    Sanginov Abdusamad M.   
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


Discussion of the draft national standard: "Anti-seismic and seismically isolated construction design code. Design rules"

Key words:   seismic isolation, damping, seismic-isolated structure, elastomeric supports, friction-mobile supports
Annotation:   The article briefly shows the main provisions of the 1st edition of the
draft National standard: «Anti-Seismic and Seismically Isolated Construction
Design Code. Design rules». National standard is presented in the Russian
Federation Ministry of Construction. As a result of its using, on a voluntary
basis, compliance with the Federal Law «Technical regulation on safety of
buildings and structures» is provide. The draft National standard prepared EERC
TsNIISK of «Open Joint Stock Company - Research Center of Construction» in
accordance with the Technical task for the development of the document. The
draft National standard was developed 
Issue:   
Authors:    Smirnov V. I.    Bubis A.A.   
Rubric:     Past publications   


Discussion of the Draft National Standard: «Anti-seismic and Seismically Isolated Construction Design Code. Design Rules»

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The article briefly shows the main provisions of the 1st edition of the draft National standard: «Anti-Seismic and Seismically Isolated Construction Design Code. Design rules». National standard is presented in the Russian Federation Ministry of Construction, as a result of which, on a voluntary basis, compliance with the Federal Law «Technical regulation on safety of buildings and structures».

The draft National standard prepared EERC TsNIISK of «Open Joint Stock Company — Research Center of Construction» in accordance with the Technical task for the development of the document. The draft National standard was developed for the first time as a new document.


Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.    Smirnov V. I.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Single-Storey Frame Buildings for Seismic Areas with Roof-Column Hinge Joints

Key words:  
Annotation:   The full-scale studies in behavior of new roof-column joints were conducted including special static bench tests of two joint types in the form of metal roll hinges with and without column heads, as well as dynamic tests of three full-scale fragments of the single-storey frame building using B-3 vibration machine. The structural concepts and the methods of analyzing roof-column joints are presented.
Issue:   
Authors:    Abakanov M.S.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Determination of Bearing Capacity and Stress-Deformation State of Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Slab after Influence of Freeze-Thaw Cycles

Key words:  
Annotation:  

In the absence of conservation, reinforced concrete slabs are most exposed to atmospheric influences, affecting the strength and deformation characteristics of concrete and bearing capacity of structures. The impact of field conditions on the properties of concrete
depends on many factors that are almost impossible to simulate in accelerated laboratory con-ditions. Therefore, the General approach to the characteristic of the change of the bearing capacity at corrosion damages of reinforced concrete slabs in the conditions of cyclic freezing-thawing, is to assess the main all possible effects of natural conditions on the change of the bearing capacity. This article discusses the numerical calculations to determine the bearing capacity of corrosion-damaged concrete slabs. For an accurate assessment of the residual life of the bearing capacity of the floors in the conditions of long-term cyclic freezing-thawing, were selected typical schemes of damage to the plates and performed a series of tests of corrosion-damaged concrete slabs.
The work of structures in the inelastic stage, as well as the gradual increase in the load, defined deflections, defor-mations and bearing capacity of the plates in the stages of cracking. The comparative analysis of results of numerical calculations and full-scale tests
of plates is given.


Issue:    №6 2018
Authors:    Minasyan A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   

read more

In the absence of conservation, reinforced concrete slabs are most exposed to atmospheric influences, affecting the strength and deformation characteristics of concrete and bearing capacity of structures. The impact of field conditions on the properties of concrete
depends on many factors that are almost impossible to simulate in accelerated laboratory con-ditions. Therefore, the General approach to the characteristic of the change of the bearing capacity at corrosion damages of reinforced concrete slabs in the conditions of cyclic freezing-thawing, is to assess the main all possible effects of natural conditions on the change of the bearing capacity. This article discusses the numerical calculations to determine the bearing capacity of corrosion-damaged concrete slabs. For an accurate assessment of the residual life of the bearing capacity of the floors in the conditions of long-term cyclic freezing-thawing, were selected typical schemes of damage to the plates and performed a series of tests of corrosion-damaged concrete slabs.
The work of structures in the inelastic stage, as well as the gradual increase in the load, defined deflections, defor-mations and bearing capacity of the plates in the stages of cracking. The comparative analysis of results of numerical calculations and full-scale tests
of plates is given.


EVALUATION OF LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY AND RELIABILITY OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AFTER SEISMIC IMPACTS

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article discusses the problem of evaluation of safety of structures after seismic impacts. For the safety adopted the ultimate load and reliability of structures. The new methods proposed for evaluation of the ultimate loads and reliability for the main load-bearing elements of structures.
Issue:   
Authors:    Utkin V.S.    Solovyov S.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №5 2018
Authors:    Tsareva O.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Determination of Relative Deformations by Changes in Distance between the Deformation Marks

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article is presented the analysis of changes distances between deformation marks for an estimation of stability of buildings and constructions. In particular, the investigation is considered of relative deformations from changes in distances between deformation marks on the example of deformation of tension/compression, and differential settlement. Studies were carried out under the condition that there were no support points for observations. The theoretical modeling of deformations is performed and an algorithm for their detection and determination of their quantitative value from distance changes is developed, based on the construction of a network model in the form of a linear spatial intersection and a polygonal grid of triangles 

Authors:    Tsareva O.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


FEM Determination of Jack-Up Platform Earthquake Resistance

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Annotation:  

The paper presents a practical method of determining earthquake resistance of jack-up floating drilling rigs (FDR) by finding the strength of support columns as their main load-bearing elements. The computation is based on internal forces occurring under acceleration defined by an accelerogram. A FDR general model is considered to determine overall loads along with a separate local model to check the column strength.


Issue:   
Authors:    Azhermachev G.A.    Livshits B.R.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Determining the Level of Seismic Effects of Pile Driving

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Annotation:  

The paper examines an instrumental method of determining minimum permissible distances from existing buildings and structures in piling using pile-driving equipment. The method is based on the use of vibration-measuring instruments to register the vibration velocity of oscillations in soil at the different distances and on the comparison of obtained maximums of velocigramms with acceptable limits of oscillation levels determined depending on the type of soil, structural kind of building and technical state of its bearing constructions.


Issue:   
Authors:    Nikitaeva G. A.    Stavnitcer L. R.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


The Defiition of the Effctive Length of the Accelerogram at the MacKenzie Earthquake Example in 2018

Key words:   earthquake intensity, energy criteria, linear oscillator, non-linear oscillator, low-cycle fatigue
Annotation:    For deterministic analysis of building structures it is necessary to set real or synthesized accelerograms as input data. This analysis requires considerable time, as it is performed by a step-bystep method. Real accelerograms can be of considerable length and
require a lot of calculations. As a rule, accelerograms have maximum values of amplitudes on a small temporal site. The article considers the possibility of using only a part of the accelerogram without loss of adequacy of calculation of seismic reactions of inelastic systems. The method of truncation of extended earthquake accelerograms for the analysis of nonlinear systems is defined. The necessity of application of the energy criterion is shown. Nonlinear oscillators for different materials are considered.

Issue:    №5 2019
Authors:    Kharlanova S.    Harlanov V. L.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Optimization of Horizontal Type Wave Barrier Parameters

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper considers the issues of surface wave propagation and their interaction with horizontal wave barriers. The most optimal barrier parameters are analyzed.
Issue:   
Authors:    Kuznetsov S.V.    Nafasov A.E.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Analysis of Paleoseismicity Using the Results of Macroseismic Survey of Historical Buildings Built in XVII-XVIII Century in Kenigsbrg

Key words:  
Annotation:   Is known to in September 2004 several earthquakes with a magnitude of 5.4-5.6 has experienced in Kaliningrad and in the eastern part of the region. In order to assess whether such strong seismic impact on the area previously, the authors estimate paleoseismicity of territory through analysis of macroseismic manifestations on the old buildings in various parts of the city by indirect methods.
Issue:   
Authors:    Borsukova O.V.    Drobiz M.V.    Koff G.L.    Kukshir L.G.   
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


The Tests and Results of Engineering and Seismic Monitoring of Objects of Hydraulic Structures of Armenia

Key words:  
Annotation:   In reservoirs of Armenia with total capacity about 1.4 milliard m3 is concentrated, more than 75% of above mentioned amount of water in 20 reservoirs. The reservoirs with technical parameters and class of hydraulic structures (dams) are considered essential and refer to the most responsible hydraulic structures. On proposal of IGES NAN RA for technical modernization projects of the reservoirs seismic engineering system on the dams were obtained on required conditions. This article includes tests and the main results of seismic engineering monitoring of dams and reservoirs.
Issue:   
Authors:    Geodakyan Edward G.    Karapetyan John K.    Karapetyan S.S.    Hovhannisyan Sevada M.   
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


Сombined asymptotic method in calculation of the internal structural forces: linear spectral analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:   The new options of SCAD soft enabling linear spectral analysis following the requirements of nuclear industry codes were tested against close form solutions, ABAQUS modal analysis and FFT analysis in the frequency domain. Single-mode responses to 1D excitation were checked including angular  excitations; then multi-mode responses to 1D excitation were compared including residual modes. Finally the responses to the six-component excitation set up at the rigid base mat were compared. This excitation was obtained using Combined Asymptotic Method to account for soil-structure interaction. The results demonstrate the unacceptable underestimation of vertical internal forces calculated using civil codes (unlike nuclear codes)
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.    Toporkov A.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Сombined asymptotic method in calculation of the internal structural forces: frequency-domain analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:   The combination rule for the responses to 1D excitations along 6 DOFs applied to the rigid basement is discussed. This 6D excitation at the basement is calculated in SSI analysis by the combined asymptotic method. Rocking components are correlated with horizontal components of the rigid basement’s motion. As a result, conventional SRSS rule applicable for 3D excitation may sometimes lead to non-conservative results. The author suggested the alternative rule: direct sum of the responses to horizontal and rocking excitation components in the same vertical plane and after that SRSS for the four responses. Here the conservatism of different approaches is compared. All the responses (to 1D and 6D  excitations) are calculated in the frequency domain
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Experience of Linear Structure Zoning Within Cryolithozone by Maximum Accelerations Using Experimental Frequency-Response Curves

Key words:  
Annotation:   Substantiation is provided to the possibility of applying frequency characteristics of loose deposits obtained by the microseism method, to reconstructing the predicted seismic effect for the probability of strong earthquakes. The necessary calculations have been performed using an integrated instrumental approach to seismic microzoning, on the basis of which the necessary initial data have been obtained and conditions for earthquake engineering of linear structures have been substantiated using the proposed procedure with regard to predicted changes in peak accelerations and resonance frequencies.
Issue:   
Authors:    Bryzhak Ye.V.    Dzhurik V.I.    Yeskin A.Yu.    Serebrennikov S.P.    Usynin L.A.    Shagun A.N.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


The Basic Definitions of the Seismic Microzonation: Category, Intensity Value, Model

Key words:  
Annotation:   It is fulfilled a content analysis of the basic concepts of microseismic zoning: categories, macroseismic degrees and models. It made the conclusion about necessity of refusal of macroseismic degrees and categories and using of continuous models of seismic effects and ground massif. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


The Main Reasons for Large?Scale Destruction of the Spitak Earthquake. Ways to Overcome the Conseguences of Possible Earthquakes in Armenia

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Annotation:  

The article is devoted to the memory of the Spitak devastating earthquake. The reasons of mass destruction and numerous fatalities are presented. The comparisons in terms of magnitude and other principal factors with the similar earthquakes worldwide are provided. The buildings and structures most affected and those which withstood the disastrous hit of the Earth`s interior are reflected and briefly described. The main activities proved for avoiding the huge destruction and numerous casualties in the territory of the country are pointed out, in particular, the choice of construction technology and application of advanced techniques and approaches for earthquake resistant structures, etc.


Issue:   
Authors:    Chaкhalyan А.L.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Fundamentals of Continuum Theory of Seismic Microzonation

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Annotation:  

Basic concepts of seismic microzoning in Russia are the degree of intensity and ground categories that correspond to discrete structure in the ratio «seismic impact ? reaction of the ground». Meanwhile, the parameters of seismic effects, and the parameters of ground properties are continuous in the space. The article expounds the basic theory, adequately representing the above mentioned space continuity. Thus, many the concepts of seismic microzoning, used now, become either more correct, or unnecessary.


Issue:   
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Features Analysis of Dynamic Behavior High-Rise Buildings with the Scientific-Technical Support of Construction

Key words:  
Annotation:  

At the present time it becomes important to ensure safe operation of buildings and structures. This is due, primarily, to the design and construction of complex structural systems with large spans in high-rise buildings. This particularly applies to buildings constructed of reinforced concrete. The choice of configuration plan and space-planning solutions building and its basic elements are produced mainly by architects and developers who are guided mainly architectural and much less design considerations. Therefore, a design engineer at the initial stages of the design need to pay special attention not only to the structural system and construction of the computational model.

This article deals with the problem of seismic resistance high-rise buildings being built at the moment. We consider a 18-storey section, part of a residential complex located in Ilyichevsk.


Issue:   
Authors:    Kalmikov A.V.    Kukunaev V.S.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Peculiar Features of Building Footing Oscillation During Local Earthquakes

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The stations of the engineering seismometric service of KazNIISA JSC recorded more than 15 lo-cal earthquakes with the foci in Almaty and Almaty region in 2018. Accelerograms recorded on rigid and flexible buildings during 3 sensible earthquakes were selected from the obtained instru-mental records. These are accelerograms recorded in the basement parts of a four-storeyed frame building and an 11-storeyed steel-framed building. In one instance, the instrumental rec-ords registered in the basement of a 17-storeyed building are used. Flexible buildings are locat-ed near tectonic faults. The spectral curves characterizing the frequency content of the seismic effect are built. It has been established that the frequency response characteristics of the foundation composed of soils of the 2nd category by seismic properties are high-frequency with prevailing periods of 0.1-0.20 sec. Resonance phenomena for flexible buildings under the influence of local earthquakes are not observed. Instrumental records are included into the accelerogram database of KazNIISA JSC.


Issue:    №6 2018
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Yerzhanov S.Е.    Daugavet V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   

read more

The stations of the engineering seismometric service of KazNIISA JSC recorded more than 15 lo-cal earthquakes with the foci in Almaty and Almaty region in 2018. Accelerograms recorded on rigid and flexible buildings during 3 sensible earthquakes were selected from the obtained instru-mental records. These are accelerograms recorded in the basement parts of a four-storeyed frame building and an 11-storeyed steel-framed building. In one instance, the instrumental rec-ords registered in the basement of a 17-storeyed building are used. Flexible buildings are locat-ed near tectonic faults. The spectral curves characterizing the frequency content of the seismic effect are built. It has been established that the frequency response characteristics of the foundation composed of soils of the 2nd category by seismic properties are high-frequency with prevailing periods of 0.1-0.20 sec. Resonance phenomena for flexible buildings under the influence of local earthquakes are not observed. Instrumental records are included into the accelerogram database of KazNIISA JSC.


Evaluation Features of Fresh Groundwater Reserves in Exploitation Conditions of Interdependent Well Fields

Key words:  
Annotation:  

It is known that the seismic properties of dispersive soils are significantly affected by watering. At the same time the problem connected with change of mentioned properties in conditions of active anthropogenic impact is still poorly understood and phenomenologically limited. Thus the phenomenon of «drying» is rare in urban areas, where «flooding» is widespread. It is difficult to take into account in the projections the soil behavior during strong earthquakes, and it is of great scientific and practical interest.

As a result of extraction of groundwater intakes group localized in the city of Beslan massive cone of depression is formed. Dynamic impacts on soil increased as a result of the construction and expansion of enterprises, increase of railway and highway traffic due to seismic ground motions that can cause secondary deformation of soils, representing a danger to the population and the national economy of the city.

Investigation results on evaluation of fresh groundwater reserves of exploited Beslan deposit in RNO-Alania are considered. In 2004-05 hydrogeological investigations were conducted in the deposit in order to assess groundwater reserves in the generated hydrodynamic conditions and develop rational scheme of deposit exploitation. As the result of this work  the scheme of deposit exploitation has been modified and  measures that can prevent negative environmental effects were developed.


Issue:   
Authors:    Dzhgamadze A.K.    Zaalishvili V.B.   
Rubric:     Monitoring the state of natural-technical systems   


Features of Fire Situation in Areas of Destruction

Key words:  
Annotation:   The features of a possible fire situation in the zones of devastation caused by earthquakes. Based on experimental and theoretical research as well as data on fires caused by earthquakes, the factors that contribute to the fire. The recommendations on the organization of fire suppression in terms of destruction.
Issue:   
Authors:    Khasanov I.R.   
Rubric:     Monitoring the state of natural-technical systems   


Peculiarities in Seismic Analysis of Rigid Basements Resting on «Pillows» in Rock Foundation by SASSI Code

Key words:  
Annotation:  

One of the possible options to decrease seismic response of NPP resting on a rocky site is to set a «pillow» (filled with comparatively soft soil) under a base mat. However, seismic analysis of such a foundation by means of SASSI code meets certain problems. The author demonstrates these problems and suggests the way to solve them.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Features of Elastic-plastic Deformation of Reinforced Concrete Shear-wall Structures under Earthquake Excitations

Key words:   reinforced concrete structures, earthquake excitation, plasticity coefficients, seismic-force-reduction factor, nonlinear dynamic analysis.
Annotation:   The article provides the results of studies the process of formation and development of plastic deformations in reinforced concrete structures with shear-wall under earthquake excitations. The studies are carried out by numerical methods using nonlinear 
dynamic analysis. The results of the research shown: that in the shear-wall elements of reinforced concrete structures the level of plastic deformations should be significantly reduced in relation to the normative level of plastics in other structural elements of the carrier system. The completed studies substantiated the introduction of differentiated values seismic-force-reduction factor for different types of structural elements on shear-walls reinforced concrete structures of earthquake-resistant buildings.


Issue:    №1 2020
Authors:    Kabantsev O.V.    Umarov K. I.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




Key words:  
Annotation:  

Authors:    Kotlyarevskiy V.A.   
Rubric:    

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COMMENTS TO THE PAPER BY A.G.TYPIN “NON-CLASSICAL DAMPING IN THE SOIL-STRUCTURE SYSTEM AND APPLICABILITY OF THE LINEAR-SPECTRAL METHOD TO THE CALCULATION OF FORCES”

Key words:  
Annotation:   The comments consider the possibility of using the response-spectra method (RSM) taking damping into account in seismic calculations. The results of the paper under consideration are fair if the influence of damping on the shape modes has not been taken into consideration. At present there exists a variant of RSM, which takes into account the damping influence on shape modes. This variant of RSM has been described in the comments. In this case complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the damped system are calculated. The imaginary part of the eigenvalues determines the modal frequency, and the real part of the eigenvalues determines the modal damping. Seismic forces are calculated taking into account the amendments caused by modal damping.
Issue:   
Authors:    Nesterova О.P.    Vorobyova K.V.    Uzdin A.M.   
Rubric:     Viewpoints   


Assessment of Options for the Seismic Reinforcement of Houses 1-335с Series Built in the 1960s-70s Using the Method of Hierarchies Analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper deals with seismic safety of the residents living in 1-335c series apartment houses built in 1960-70s in the town of Angarsk. These houses were designed to withstand earthquakes with a seismic intensity of 6. The seismicity of the area of Angarsk is 8. The task is to choose the best alternative for the problem solution. Use has been method of hierarchies analysis.
Issue:   
Authors:    Berzhinskaya L.P.    Berzhinsky Yu.A.    Ordynskaia A.P.   
Rubric:     Seismic risk and damage   


Assessment of Possibility to Use Wall Masonry from Ceramic Products of “Slavyansky Kirpich” Plant in the Russian Federation’s Seismic Areas

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper presents the test results for masonry specimens from ceramic products of Slavyansky Kirpich JSC, the Krasnodar Territory. The tests were conducted within the framework of studies in strength and deformability of wall masonry from hollow aerated brick and stone to substantiate a possibility of their use in the Russian Federation’s seismic areas.
Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.    Saifulina N.Yu.    Slupsky I.A.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №4 2018
Authors:    Prokopovich S.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Estimating the dependence of seismic input energy characteristics on its predominant period

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper considers the types of dependencies of the seismic input energy characteristics on input prevailing period. In particular, the types of dependencies for the Arias intensity and the seismic energy density are proposed. In the course of this study, a database including 91 accelerograms of earthquakes with intencity 9 on the MSK scale was used. This database was collected at the Petersburg State Transport University and the University of Petroleum in Qingdao. Parameters of the approximating dependences were calculated by the least squares method. Formal dependencies in the form of polynomials and exponential functions, and dependencies, characteristic for the input in the form of a damped sinusoid were considered. Parameters of the last type of dependencies can have a physical meaning. Studies have shown that some of the input parameters (peak accelerations and velocities, harmonic coefficient) have a clear correlation with the accelerogram prevailing period, and for energy characteristics such relationship is not observed.

Authors:    Prokopovich S.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Score reduction factor for calculating the pylons of bridges

Key words:  
Annotation:   The reduction factor K1 included in the formulas of Guidelines for calculating seismic loads for bridge piers has been evaluated. The dependence of the reduction factor on the ratio of pier reinforcement has been obtained. To this aim the non-linear finite element calculation of the pier under monotonous loading has been carried out and the elastic limit and damaging displacement has been obtained.
Issue:   
Authors:    Smirnova L.N.    Uzdin A.M.    Guan Yonghai    Benin A.V.    Semyonov S.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Estimating Combination Coefficients of Seismic and Ice Loads

Key words:   seismic load, ice load, combinations, equiprobable pairs, combinations factor
Annotation:   Abstract: Combination coefficients of ice and seismic loads for earthquakes of different frequencies have been considered. As the density function of the ice load distribution, the Weibull law, supplemented by a delta function at the origin was used, which allowed us to take into account the absence of ice in the warm season. The interval between earthquakes was taken according to the Poisson law. It has been shown that the magnitude of the design loads significantly depends on the frequency of earthquakes, and the combination coefficients are practically independent. Combination coefficients determine equally probable pairs of actions, which in their term determine the dependence of the combination coefficient to ice loads on the combination coefficient to seismic ones.
An example of calculations for the region respectively with situational seismicity of 9, 10 and 10, using maps A, B and C of general seismic zoning maps of the territory of Russia is given

Issue:    №1 2019
Authors:    Ottosha B. Sabirova   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Combination Coefficients of Seismic and Wind Loads

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The combination coefficients of seismic and wind loads for multilevel designing buildings and structures in high seismic regions are considered. For design and maximum design earthquakes equiprobable pairs of seismic and wind loads are determined.  Correspondingly, these pairs are iven coupling coefficients for the loads under consideration, which determine the dependence of one combination coefficient on the other. In constructing the equiprobable pairs, the wind load is described by Weibull law and seismic load is described by Poisson’s law. It is shown that for the seventh wind zone with high seismic intensity in calculating structures under the action of the esign earthquake, the combination coefficients are close to 1, and in calculating structures under the action of the maximum design earthquake they are less than 1, and therefore it becomes necessary to choose the most dangerous pair of seismic and wind loads.


Issue:    №6 2018
Authors:    Ottosha B. Sabirova   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   

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The combination coefficients of seismic and wind loads for multilevel designing buildings and structures in high seismic regions are considered. For design and maximum design earthquakes equiprobable pairs of seismic and wind loads are determined.  Correspondingly, these pairs are iven coupling coefficients for the loads under consideration, which determine the dependence of one combination coefficient on the other. In constructing the equiprobable pairs, the wind load is described by Weibull law and seismic load is described by Poisson’s law. It is shown that for the seventh wind zone with high seismic intensity in calculating structures under the action of the esign earthquake, the combination coefficients are close to 1, and in calculating structures under the action of the maximum design earthquake they are less than 1, and therefore it becomes necessary to choose the most dangerous pair of seismic and wind loads.


Assessment of reliability of multi-storey building in accordance with Eurocode principles

Key words:   reliability, probability of trouble-free operation, reliability index, Pushover method
Annotation:  

A method for determining the reliability of a building based on the application of the basic principles of the Eurocode is proposed. Reliability is understood as the probability of trouble-free operation. The transformation of a multi-mass system into an equivalent single-mass nonlinear system was performed using the Pushover nonlinear calculation method (MIDAS/Gen software package). The seismic impact is modeled by a non-stationary random process that is obtained from a stationary one by multiplying by a deterministic envelope. According to EN 1990, the reliability index b is adopted as an indicator of reliability, which is associated with the probability of failure-free operation. An excess of the maximum permissible displacements (misalignment) of the system is taken as a failure. The reliability index is determined using the statistical test method (Monte Carlo method). An example of the calculation of a 9-storey residential building, previously calculated by the spectral method, is given. The floor masses, displacements, and the load-bearing capacity curve and its parameters are taken from the results of the calculation of the building performed using the Midas gen computing complex. The calculation results show the unsatisfactory reliability of the building in terms of the index value. The calculation method can be used to calculate buildings according to special technical conditions (STU).


Issue:    #5-2021
Authors:    Vladimir A. Lapin    Ruslan Y. Nursafin    Erik F. Pak   
Rubric:     Seismic risk and damage   


ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL ATTENUATION CURVE OF THE GROUND ACCELERATION DURING STRONG EARTHQUAKES

Key words:  
Annotation:   With the use of wide range of experimental data on strong and distractive earthquakes, occurred in the region, coefficients of specified universal models of effects of ground acceleration damping are determined, which are recommended as the most acceptable for the territory of Armenia.
Issue:   
Authors:    Grigoryan V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Seismic Reliability of Modern Housing in Ulaanbaatar City

Key words:  
Annotation:   The study of seismic vulnerability of residential buildings in Ulaanbaatar has been performed for 14 typical objects. Those included old brick houses, 5- and 9-story large-panel houses, and new 8-16-story frame buildings. Classification of buildings by seismic resistance has been conducted on the new Russian scale GOST R (project). Engineering-seismometric studies have been made on dynamic characteristics of buildings at microseisms. Seismic risk assessment has been made for housing and population of Ulaanbaatar.
Issue:   
Authors:    Bazarov A.D.    Berzhinskaya L.P.    Demberel S.    Kiselev D.V.    Salandayeva O.I.   
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


Detailed Seismic Hazard Assessment for the City of Kaliningrad

Key words:  
Annotation:   a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:719:"The brief results of a detailed seismic hazard assessment for Kaliningrad on the basis of a complex of geologic-geophysical methods are stated. The reality of seismic threat for the city was shown by 2004 year earthquakes. Seismotectonic and seismological features of the region, including a seismotectonic position of the Kaliningrad earthquakes, are considered. According to the received materials, the source of 2004 earthquakes is located in the northwest of the Sambian peninsula and represents seismogenerating capacity at a depth of 7–11 km. The detailed map of the seismic source zones is made. On the basis of this map and parameters of a seismic conditions the predicted seismic hazard assessment is obtained.";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"HTML";}
Issue:   
Authors:    Gorbatikov A.V.    Lutikov A.I.    Ovsyuchenko A.N.    Rogozhin E.A.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


The Detailed Assessment of the Seismic Risk in the Territory of North Caucasus

Key words:  
Annotation:   The results of a new aggregation of data of the seismic hazard for the Northern Caucasus presented. The fundamentally new layout seismotectonic basis for seismic hazard maps in the region prepared. On the background of this model the calculations of seismic effects on a probability basis were fulfilled. On-drawn maps the region of Northern Caucasus looks as a seismically dangerous area where levels of seismic effects reaches 8.5 degrees on cards in terms A and B and little bit exceeds 9 points on the map C. At the same time, in comparison with the data of the map GSZ-97 (General seismic zoning - 97) the results of regionalization seem more differentiated and, in general, significantly reduced the level of seismic hazard in the region. The fulfilled work is important from the methodological point of view in the light of the prospects for the compilation of new maps of General seismic zoning of the territory of Russia.
Issue:   
Authors:    Lutikov A.I.    Ovsyuchenko A.N.    Rogozhin E.A.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


The Assessment of Seismic Situation in the Republic оf Chechen

Key words:  
Annotation:   Seismological situation of the construction area is decisive in making design decisions to ensure seismic stability of buildings. Seismological situation in the Chechen Republic to the ground conditions, landslides and manmade seismic activity is very complex. This requires a serious approach in the design and restoration of various buildings in order to ensure their reliability according to the norms of earthquake engineering.
Issue:   
Authors:    Labazanov R.R.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Estimation of Earthquake Stability of Being Built Open Way Railway Composite Arch Overpass of Tunnel Type

Key words:  
Annotation:   Estimation of earthquake stability of reinforced arch viaduct of tunnel type strengthened by corrugated metal arch structure has been carried out. The structure calculation has been done using the finite element diagram including railway the embankment, the composite arch and soil base. Along the contour of the design area was placed the damping boundary. Obtained system mode parameters (frequencies and damping) were used for generating design accelerograms. It is shown that in the process of strong earthquakes (MDE) in the arch impost and crown may occur plastic hinges. When this becomes the arch turn from hingeless one into two or three — hinge arch, but does not lose bearing capacity. The recommendations for the reinforcement of structures under consideration are proposed.
Issue:   
Authors:    Zhamerko O.V.    Lebedeva V.G.    Sibul G.A.    Smirnova L.N.    Freze M.V.     Shaporenkov A.L.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Assessing Resistance to Vibroliquefaction of Water-Saturated Foundation Sandy Soils during Scenario Earthquakes in Near-Surface Geological and Geotechnical Conditions of the City of Kazan

Key words:  
Annotation:   Due to the fact that earthquakes with up to 7-point intensities are predicted for Kazan territory, the football stadium base soils were assessed for resistance to vibroliquefaction.
The construction site base is formed with water-saturated sands to the depth up to 12 m. The site seismic microzoning results show that seismic activity of the site is assessed as 7.0 points by MSK 64 scale with acceleration 143 sm2/s at short and mean wave periods.
Basing on the analysis of design documentation, the construction site near-surface geological and geotechnical conditions, the results of dynamic laboratory tests of soils under scenario earthquakes for the site considered, the assessment of vibroliquefied water-saturated sandy base soils was conducted.
Issue:   
Authors:    Korolyova I.V.    Mirsayapov I.T.   
Rubric:     Monitoring the state of natural-technical systems   


Assessing the Extent of Effects of Bystander Buildings with Different Structural Concepts under Seismic Loads

Key words:  
Annotation:   Ensuring seismic safety of individual buildings and their groups in a single complex of the congested urban development during earthquakes represents a difficult engineering problem. The results of calculations and theoretical studies in behavior of individual projects and their complexes under earthquake loads are presented, and the assessment of their mutual influence is given.
Issue:   
Authors:    Blinkova K.V.    Kapustyansky S.M.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Study of the accuracy of 1-D approach to the development of impedances for the application to the SSI analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:   The author investigates the accuracy of the structural seismic response estimates developed using simplified 1D wave propagation model (including waves from the structure). Formulae for 1D translational impedances are derived based on the results of the SHAKE calculations. Sample heavy structure resting on the comparatively soft layered soil improved under the base mat is considered. Seismic response calculated using SASSI is compared to the seismic response calculated using 1D impedances. It is demonstrated that the accuracy of the approximate estimates is different in different frequency ranges. In the rage 0.3…7 Hz the 1D impedances do not allow to obtain satisfactory results; however in the range 7…20 Hz the accuracy is higher enabling the implementation of the approximate approach to the verification of the 3D analysis SASSI results. For the weightless structure erected on the same base mat the accuracy is high throughout the whole frequency range; thus the applicability of the proposed approach with 1D impedances for the light structures requires additional research.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Evaluation of the Accuracy of Determining the Coordinates of Deformation Marks and the Distances Between Them

Key words:   assessment of accuracy, deformation mark, buildings of objects of cultural heritage, evaluation of deformations, distances between deformation marks
Annotation:   The article is presented an estimate of the accuracy of determining the coordinates using the polar spatial intersection. When implementing such resection using electronic tachometers, the coordinates of the deformation marks are interdependent. The most complete form that characterizes the accuracy and interdependence of random variables is the correlation (covariance) matrix. The coefficients of the matrix , included in the formula for calculating the covariance matrix were calculated. Since the evaluation of deformations is assumed using invariant parameters - the distances between the deformation marks, the accuracy of determining the distance between the deformation marks was evaluated.
Issue:    №2 2019
Authors:    Tsareva O.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Assessment of the resistance of monolithic reinforced concrete bearing systems to progressive collapse based on the principle of the level of permissible damage

Key words:   Load-carrying structures, stress-and-strain state, design prediction, calculation model, progressive collapse
Annotation:  

The paper presents a method of using the reduction factor to ensure the stability of monolithic reinforced concrete bearing structures to progressive collapse.

Studies have established the values of the reduction factor based on the accepted value of the relative deformation corresponding to the formation of an admissible zone of "destruction" of the support section of the overlap under the action of transverse forces, as the main criterion for asessing the stress-strain state of monolithic reinforced concrete structures for the failure mode of a vertical supporting structure.

The accepted deformation criteria for a special limiting state correctly reflect the conditions for the formation of an admissible amount of damage to elements of bearing reinforced concrete systems.

The reduction factor (K1) obtained in the framework of the research performed is the most important deformation characteristic of the special limiting state of monolithic reinforced concrete bearing systems of buildings and structures for an emergency design situation associated with the failure of a local structural element.


Issue:    #3 2021
Authors:    Mitrovic Bozidar   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Assessment of Efficiency of Information Systems Designed for City Planning

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Present time is characterized by wide development of different information systems. Geoinformation systems for collection, storage, analysis and graphical visualization of spatial data and related information presented in GIS objects hold specific place in this row.

Unfortunately, support of seismic risk assessment methodology is not exist in modern models of information systems designed for city planning that can be a matter for social and economic losses caused by possible earthquake.  In order to standardize these systems we have developed a structural-functional model of information systems designed for city planning and, based on an algorithm with support of original methods of seismic risk assessment. Significantly higher efficiency of the developed system compared to similar solutions is shown.


Issue:   
Authors:    Kanukov A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety in city planning   


The Evolution of the Theory of Reliability and Design Codes

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article presents a review of the theory of reliability and its use for design code making procedures based on the probabilistic approach. Principles of structural safety in design code making are considered. This review article cites 135 references national and foreign authors.
Issue:   
Authors:    Raizer V.D.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Passiv system of high-rise building vibrocompensation

Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:   
Authors:    Burtseva O.A.    Chipko S.A.    Abuladze N.R.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Prospects for the use of structural systems of suspended buildings in seismic areas

Key words:   high-rise buildings, suspended structures, seismic impact
Annotation:  

There are many approaches to ensuring the stability of high-rise buildings to seismic impacts. Among them, it is worth noting the use of suspended structures. This approach makes it possible to reduce the loads in load-bearing structures caused by dynamic influences. The effectiveness of the use of suspended structures in earthquake-resistant construction was confirmed by studies of the behavior of such objects in earthquake conditions. The development of computer systems allowed us to unlock the potential of using suspended structures in seismically dangerous areas. However, the engineering community has not yet come to an unambiguous solution to the problem of significant displacements of suspended ceilings during low-frequency seismic impacts. The question of ensuring the stability of the core structures of the building also remains open. Proposals for solving these problems, as well as the supporting structures of suspended high-rise buildings themselves, are diverse. This article discusses the main existing and promising design solutions that provide earthquake resistance of high-rise buildings with suspended structures. The results of computational studies of these design solutions are given in the article


Issue:    #5-2021
Authors:    Tatiana A. Belash    Ilia V. Svitlik    
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Planar vibrations of rigid structure on kinematic supports after A.M. Kurzanov

Key words:   kinematical rolling support after A.M. Kurzanov, seismic response, program of experimental studies
Annotation:   The author carries out parametric studies for the equation of planar vibrations of rigid structure resting on kinematical rolling supports with planar bottom (after A.M. Kurzanov). Both support and the surface below are assumed rigid; no sliding assumed. Varied parameter is the width of the bottom. Horizontal structural acceleration is studied. Three variants of the possible behavior are shown: (i) minor rocking with little decrease in response accelerations as compared to the initial excitation; considerable rocking with considerable decrease in the response accelerations; intensive rocking leading to the overturn of the supports. In vertical direction there appear shocks (infinite accelerations) during gap closings of the supports. The importance of the problem for the seismic response analysis of the unanchored items is noted. The author gives recommendations for the experimental program, aimed to obtain data about damping both for rotation and for the gap closing, and also about the impact of the flexibility of the supports and underlying surface. 
Issue:    #6 2020
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Planar Vibrations of Rigid Structure Resting on Kinematical Supports of Yu. D. Cherepinsky

Key words:   seismic input, pendulum kinematical supports, equations of motion
Annotation:   The author derives the equation of motion for a structure resting on kinematical pendulum supports of Yu.D.Cherepinsky. Both structure and supports are assumed to be rigid; no
sliding is assumed during rolling. Two components of seismic excitation are considered (horizontal one and vertical one). Equation of motion for free vibrations looks like that of the free vibrations for massive pendulum support standing alone (it was studied earlier). It is fact the equation of motion for pendulum, but center of rotation, inertia moment and stiffness are varying with time. This equation may be simplified to the linear one by skipping the second
order terms. The equation of motion for seismic response after linearization is the extension of the Mathieu-Hill’s equation, where horizontal component is responsible for the right-hand part (in the conventional Mathieu-Hill’s equation it is zero), and vertical component creates parametric excitation in the left-hand part. In fact, vertical seismic acceleration modifies gravity acceleration g, which controls the effective natural frequency for pendulum.
Thus, there might appear dynamic instability (though without infinite response due to the finite duration of excitation). The author presents numerical example.
Issue:    №3 2020
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


PLANAR VIBRATIONS OF RIGID STRUCTURE ON KINEMATIC SUPPORTS: GENERAL GEOMETRY

Key words:   kinematical rolling support, free vibrations, Lagrange equation
Annotation:   The author derives
the equation of planar vibrations for kinematical rolling supports of varying
curvature radius. Both support and the surface below are assumed rigid; no
sliding assumed. Generalization means arbitrary geometry of the support and
rolling surface (the building is attached to the supports by hinges, as
previously). The equation of motion developed is checked with free and forced
vibrations of the support with two curvature radii (great radius in the central
part and small radius in the side parts). Such a support in the limit case
(when great radius goes to infinity, and small radius goes to zero) models the
support after A.М.
Kurzanov with planar bottom and finite size in plan. 
Issue:    №4 2020
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Viewpoints   


Increasing the seismic resistance of operated buildings using special seismic protection methods

Key words:   seismic, exploited buildings, seismic resistance, seismic resistance deficit, seismic isolation, rubber-metal supports
Annotation:  

The change in the level of seismicity of buildings and structures occurs as a result of updating the maps of general seismic zoning. Ensuring the seismic resistance of buildings and structures is a factor that must be taken into account, especially during construction in seismically active regions. Nowadays, one of the main approaches to increasing seismic resistance is the use of various seismic isolation systems. It is not always profitable and rational to increase the seismic resistance of building structures or foundations for equipment by simply increasing the strength. A classification of seismic reinforcement systems is given, among which the most sparing are special methods of seismic protection in the form of seismic isolation. Practical examples of the use of seismic isolation systems to improve the seismic resistance of existing buildings are given. A computational study was carried out, the result of which showed the effectiveness of using rubber-metal supports for hanging the seismic resistance of buildings.

 


Issue:    #3 2021
Authors:    Tatiana A. Belash    Erokhina Elizaveta D.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


INCREASING THE RESISTANCE OF MOSQUE MINARETS AGAINST SEISMIC AND WIND IMPACTS BY USING TUNED MASS DAMPERS

Key words:   minaret, Great Mosque of Aleppo, architectural monuments of Syria, earthquake, vibration control, tuned mass damper (TMD), building structures
Annotation:   The article provides
an overview of the use of tuned mass dampers (TMD) in some of the most famous
buildings and structures around the world for nearly three decades. The article
also discusses the use of tuned mass dampers when increasing the seismic
resistance of mosque minarets and enhancing their resistance to wind action. An
example is given of the possible use of such dampers in the minaret of the Great Mosque
of Aleppo in Syria, using as an example the parameters and characteristics of the
devastating earthquake that occurred back in 1995 in the city of Kobe in Japan.
The optimal characteristics of the components of the tuned mass damper used to
enhance the stability of the minaret of the aforementioned mosque against
seismic and wind impact have been selected. The results of the analysis are
obtained and conclusions are drawn.
Issue:    №4 2020
Authors:    Aldrebi Ziad Ahmad   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Fire as an Inevitable Companion of the Earthquake

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper discloses a mechanism of the earthquake impact on emergence and propagation of fires, the particulars of fire-extinguishing in damage areas and the post-earthquake situation.


Issue:   
Authors:    Krivtsov Yu.V.    Mikeyev A.K.   
Rubric:     Monitoring the state of natural-technical systems   


Fire in high-rise buildings

Key words:  
Annotation:   More than 70 fires in high-rise buildings in Russia and abroad are analyzed. Recommendations for fire safety in high-rise buildings are made.
Issue:   
Authors:    Krivtsov Yu.V.    Ladygina I.R.    Nosov E.N.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Fire safety of buildings and structures under seismic events

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper concerns the use in structural application in seismic areas of building structures that meet both the requirements of fire safety and seismic safety requirements. The paper deals with the procedures for building structures certification tests that confirm these structures compliance with seismic and fire safety requirements. The problems related to fire and earthquake resistance of building structures and fire protection systems and elements are under investigation. The work of the V.A. Kucherenko CNIISK specialists is described.
Issue:   
Authors:    Krivtsov Yu.V.    Bubis A.A.    Ladygina I.R.    Makarevich A.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Поляков Святослав Васильевич

Key words:  
Annotation:   В сентябре 2018 г. исполняется 100 лет со дня рождения выдающегося ученого, одного из основателей отечественной научной школы в области сейсмостойкости сооружений – профессора, доктора технических наук Святослава Васильевича Полякова.

Authors:    Editor   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Lateral Vibrations of Structures with Account of Vertical Dead Load

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper presents solution of the problem on effect of the axial dead weight force on bending frequency of high-rise structures. This force changes from zero in the top point to the maximum value in the rigid support.

This problem has practical significance in view of large-scale high-rise construction.

The paper shows that for structures 200?250 m high and more one should consider the effect of N on free frequency.


Issue:   
Authors:    Zharnitskiy V. I.    Sharipov S. S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Recent Developments in New Zealand in Seismic Isolation, Energy Dissipation and Vibration Control of Structures (2019)

Key words:   New Zealand, recent developments, isolation, energy dissipation
Annotation:   Recent activity in the implementation of seismic isolation, energy dissipation and vibration control of structures in New Zealand is summarised. Recent severely damaging earthquakes in New Zealand have left many buildings and infrastructure systems inoperable and not repairable, leading to their demolition. Owners and engineers are now seeking systems that will provide more resilient seismic behaviour. Resilient structures will be able to recover operation and function quickly after a major earthquake compared with conventional structural systems. Earthquake protection technologies now being developed and used to make more seismically resilient structures include seismic isolation and energy dissipation systems. These systems can provide better damage control and repairability of structures.The paper summarises recent projects in New Zealand that have incorporated seismic isolation and energy dissipation and other earthquake protection systems such as dissipative brace systems. A draft New Zealand Guideline for the design of seismic isolation systems for buildings was recently published. The Guideline makes recommendations for how engineers should design isolated buildings to meet performance requirements that will often be well in excess of the minimum requirements of the national building code. Details of the design Guideline are summarised and examples of the design displacement and acceleration demands in various main centres of New Zealand are also given.
Issue:    №4 2019
Authors:    Whittaker David   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Setting and the Solution of the Contact Boundary?Value Problem of Building with the Ground Base Interaction Under the Seismic Impact

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The multilayer contact boundary-value problem of the seismic vibrations of the system, consisting of the elastic-viscous layers under the building, is set and solved. Boundary-value problem consists of n differential equations describing transversal shear vibrations of soil layers. On each contact surface of soil layers differential equations are interconnected by two boundary conditions, which express the equality of displacements and shearing stresses in the adjacent of soil layers. The last deep layer is considered semi-bounded. At infinity the limitedness of displacement and partial derivatives of displacement is stipulated. The presented boundary-value problem is solved by the method of the forward and reflected waves superposition. Calculation formulas for the seismic vibrations amplitudes of each layer, including for the ground surface are obtained.


Issue:   
Authors:    Muzaev I.D.    Muzaev N. I.    Harebov K.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Multilayer Boundary-Value Problem of the High-Rise Building Seismic Vibrations Setting and the Solution

Key words:  
Annotation:   The contact boundary problem of joint seismic vibrations of a system consisting of some soil layers, foundation and high-rise building is set and solved. The formulas for calculating the oscillations of the body structure amplitude are obtained.
Issue:   
Authors:    Muzaev I.D.    Muzaev N. I.    Harebov K.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Practical Estimates of Site Response in Earthquakes for Seismic-Resistant Design (to the Discussion of SP 14.13330.2014 — the Renovated SNiP II-7-81* “Construction in Seismic Areas”)

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Renovated Russian building codes SP 14.13330.2014 “Construction in seismic areas” in sections concerning seismic loadings and soil conditions are discussed.

The updated SP did not change much compared to the previous version SNiP II-7-81*, and the response spectra are simplified. The updated documents do not take into account new knowledge on the manifestations of seismicity, soil behavior during strong earthquakes, and spatial distribution of soils over the territory of Russia, they keep outdated provisions that have already shown their insolvency. The application of one seismic zonation map in the calculations for “project earthquake” and for “maximum credible earthquake” (PZ and MRZ) contradicts to the logic of probabilistic seismic zonation maps OSR-97.

To make the updated SP the documents of a modern scientific level, we should introduce significant changes in them, concerning soil classification, selection of “base” soil type, accounting for soil conditions, application of the method of seismic rigidities (VSZ), and the use of seismic zonation maps OSR-97 for the calculations on PZ and MRZ.


Issue:   
Authors:    Pavlenko O.V.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Practical calculation of structural structures with seismic insulating sliding belt on seismic impact

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper considers the practical calculation of structures of a hard type with a seismic insulating belt for seismic impacts. The
formula for determining the seismic load on structures according to SNiP 20-02: 2009 “Seismic resistant construction” is presented.
Issue:   
Authors:    Apsemetov M.Ch.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Тhe Endurance of Anchoring of Armature

Key words:  
Annotation:   It is marked, that in an operative range of cross forces of one of forms of destruction of ferro-concrete beams at a cross bend repeatedly repeating loading is the weariness of anchoring of longitudinal armature. Are shown as work of anchoring of armature and the reason of her infringement because of fatiguess of coupling is modelled. It is offered to define durability of anchoring of armature as function from length of fatigue cracks of splitting under ledges profiled armatures.
Issue:   
Authors:    Mirsayapov I.T.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Suggestions for Use the Period of Oscillation of Frame Buildings in Low-intensity Effects

Key words:   principle of similarity, the period of oscillation, low-intensity load, the model frame buildings, technical condition
Annotation:   This article presents data on the impact of non-loadbearing structures on the amplitude-frequency characteristics of frame buildings during dynamic tests using low-intensity loads. On the basis of experimental studies, it is proposed to introduce a correction factor to the experimentally determined period of the building’s natural oscillations. In addition, proposals are made in which cases it is advisable to conduct dynamic tests using lowintensity loads.
Issue:    №2 2019
Authors:    Tonkikh G.P.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Application of the wavelet transform in filtering the noise of real earthquake accelerograms

Key words:   earthquake accelerograms, wavelet transform, dynamism coefficient, energy criterion
Annotation:  

In the deterministic analysis of building structures, real accelerograms are used as input data. Very often, only instrumental recordings of accelerograms that are not cleared of noise are publicly available. Such accelerograms cannot be used directly in the analysis of building structures. Various broadband filters are used to adjust the instrumental recordings of accelerographs. This article discusses the possibility of applying filters based on the wavelet transform.

The technique of the algorithm of filtering from the noise of the source data is considered. As an efficiency of this filtering algorithm, a comparative analysis of the dynamic coefficient and the energy criteria of the pulse and Arias for the corrected and instrumental accelerograms is carried out.


Issue:    #3 2021
Authors:    Kharlanova S.    Harlanov V. L.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Using External Carbon Fiber Reinforcement for Earthquake Resistance Strengthening of Brick Walls

Key words:  
Annotation:   Basing on the results of the experimental studies in the brick masonry strength reinforced by the external carbon-fiber fabric M-Brace (BASF) in misalignment a conclusion was made on the possibility of using this technology to increase the wall strength of buildings to be constructed in seismic areas of the Russian Federation.
Issue:   
Authors:    Gasiyev A.A.    Granovsky A.V.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Application of Damping Devices to Improve Seismic Resistance of Existing Wet Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

Key words:  
Annotation:  

“Wet” spent nuclear fuel repositories represent a potential hazard to people and the environment, so their seismic stability is an important and urgent issue. Design feature of such buildings is the presence of rigid concrete bottom and flexible framed top, which is the most vulnerable to earthquakes.

This article describes the evaluation of the effectiveness of the damping devices to improve the seismic resistance of the flexible framed top of the existing «wet» storage facility of spent nuclear fuel of VVER-1000 reactors. 


Issue:   
Authors:    Travin Sergei M.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Combined Asymptotic Method in Seismic Analysis of High-Rise Building: Specifics of Low-Frequency Structure

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Combined Asymptotic Method (CAM) has been developed and used for SSI analysis of stiff and heavy NPP structures. However, some of civil structures nowadays are comparable with NPP structures in terms of size and mass. The question is whether SSI is significant for such structures and whether it should be accounted for in the design process. In the previous two papers CAM was applied to the seismic analysis of the high-rise structure resting on a sample homogeneous half-space modeling soil. The overall impact of SSI or, in other words, the applicability of the fixed-base seismic analysis was studied. In the present paper two specific features are investigated which make horizontal/rocking seismic response of the high-rise building completely different from the vertical response of the same building and from the total response of the conventional NPP buildings. Maximal integral horizontal forces under the base are several times less than vertical force though maximal horizontal base accelerations are greater than vertical one. Transfer functions to the horizontal base response show little peaks at the lowest natural frequencies corresponding to the dominant modal masses. Rocking stiffness of the soil proves to be more important than the horizontal one. Due to the low first natural
frequencies, the response along the first modes is overcritical and out of phase – as a result, the corresponding modal mass is subtracted from the total “rigid” mass. Base rocking is also out of phase and leads to the decrease in deformations in the lower part
of structure.


Issue:    №6 2018
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   

read more

Combined Asymptotic Method (CAM) has been developed and used for SSI analysis of stiff and heavy NPP structures. However, some of civil structures nowadays are comparable with NPP structures in terms of size and mass. The question is whether SSI is significant for such structures and whether it should be accounted for in the design process. In the previous two papers CAM was applied to the seismic analysis of the high-rise structure resting on a sample homogeneous half-space modeling soil. The overall impact of SSI or, in other words, the applicability of the fixed-base seismic analysis was studied. In the present paper two specific features are investigated which make horizontal/rocking seismic response of the high-rise building completely different from the vertical response of the same building and from the total response of the conventional NPP buildings. Maximal integral horizontal forces under the base are several times less than vertical force though maximal horizontal base accelerations are greater than vertical one. Transfer functions to the horizontal base response show little peaks at the lowest natural frequencies corresponding to the dominant modal masses. Rocking stiffness of the soil proves to be more important than the horizontal one. Due to the low first natural
frequencies, the response along the first modes is overcritical and out of phase – as a result, the corresponding modal mass is subtracted from the total “rigid” mass. Base rocking is also out of phase and leads to the decrease in deformations in the lower part
of structure.




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №4 2018
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.    Toporkov A.S.    Mikhailov V.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Combined asymptotic method in seismic analysis of high-rise building: results

Key words:  
Annotation:   Combined Asymptotic Method (CAM) has been developed and used for SSI analysis of stiff and heavy NPP structures. However, some of civil structures nowadays are comparable with NPP
structures in terms of size and mass. The question is whether SSI is significant for such structures and whether it should be accounted for in the design process. The authors apply CAM to the
seismic analysis of the high-rise structure resting on a sample homogeneous half-space modeling soil. The main peculiarity of this structure as compared to the conventional NPP structures 
are very low first natural frequencies of the fixed-base model for the horizontally-rocking modes, and very intensive accumulation of the modal masses (especially rocking ones) in the frequency range far below dominant excitation frequency. As a result, at the dominant excitation frequency the effective horizontal and rocking masses are far less than the conventional masses, and the overall impact of SSI is surprisingly small. In the vertical direction the first natural frequency is greater (about 1.5 Hz) which makes vertical seismic response look like conventional seismic response of the NPP structures – and SSI effects are more pronounced here. Due to the wide scope of results only main results are presented here. 6D response spectra for rigid base calculated for three variants of soil parameters are compared to 3D spectra of excitation. Maximal integral forces under the base are presented in comparison with those obtained for the fixed-base analysis and with maximal accelerations of the base. The authors are going to provide detailed comments in the nearest future.

Authors:    Tyapin A.G.    Toporkov A.S.    Mikhailov V.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №5 2018
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Combined Asymptotic Method in Seismic Analysis of High-Rise Building: Impact of SSI

Key words:  
Annotation:   Combined Asymptotic Method (CAM) has been developed and used for SSI analysis of stiff and heavy NPP structures. However, some of civil structures nowadays are comparable with NPP structures in terms of size and mass. The question is whether SSI is significant for such structures and whether it should be accounted for in the design process. In the previous paper the authors applied CAM to the seismic analysis of the high-rise structure resting on a sample homogeneous half-space modeling soil. In the present paper the results are investigated to estimate the overall impact of SSI or, in other words, the applicability of the fixed-base seismic analysis. It turns out that this question must be asked separately for separate directions of seismic response - horizontal&rocking in two different vertical planes, vertical, and torsional (for non-symmetrical structures). Impact of SSI may be different for one and the same structure in different directions. Hence, fixed-base seismic analysis may be applicable in some directions and non-applicable in others. The results were checked against empirical criteria from nuclear ASCE Standard, based on the comparison of the first natural frequencies of flexible structure resting on rigid soil and of rigid structure resting on flexible soil. Criteria were confirmed, if the comparison is performed separately for different directions. Otherwise, if the comparison is performed for the whole set of frequencies, one can get wrong result. The considered case gives an example of such a situation. 

Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


APPLICATION OF THE MODAL SUPERPOSITION METHOD IN THE NON-CLASSICAL FORM FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION OF NPP BUILDINGS UNDER THE SEISMIC EXCITATION

Key words:  
Annotation:   The non-classical form of the modal superposition method for the solution of motion equations of soil-structure system is considered. In this case the damping matrix of system of motion equations in generalized coordinates is not diagonal. The resolving system of equations is not reduced to set of independent equations, and is solved by method of direct step-by-step integration. In comparison with the classical form of the modal superposition method, the non-classical form of this method avoids the main shortcoming – restriction of value of modal damping (it is especially important at the solution of problems of interaction of buildings and constructions of NPP with the ground base). In comparison with method of direct integration with traditional Rayleigh damping, non-classical form allows more correctly take into account the damping in constructions, and also significantly reduces the order of system of the resolving equations. Advantages of this technique are shown on solutions of model and practical problems.
Issue:   
Authors:    Turilov V.    Utkin I.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Sample Modification of the Seismic Excitation for the Analysis of the “Two-Base Structure – Soil” Platform Model

Key words:  
Annotation:   The author concludes the chain of publications about the extension of the previously proposed combined asymptotic method of seismic SSI analysis for the multiply-supported structures. In this paper the transfer functions from the free-field motion to the platforms’ motions under the basements are obtained for the two-base structure in the frequency domain. Simplified structure modeling the NPP Reactor Building with transportation portal is considered as a benchmark.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Sample Analysis of the Dynamic Stiffness Matrix Condensed to the Basements for the Two-Base Structure

Key words:  
Annotation:   The author continues the chain of publications about the extension of the previously proposed combined asymptotic method of seismic SSI analysis for the multiply-supported structures. In this paper the dynamic stiffness matrix in the frequency domain condensed to the rigid contact surfaces is obtained for the two-base structure. Simplified structure modeling the NPP Reactor Building with transportation portal is considered. Accounting for the internal damping in different ways is also discussed.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Sample Seismic Analysis of the Soil-Structure Interaction for the Two-Base Structure

Key words:  
Annotation:   The author continues the chain of publications about the extension of the previously proposed combined asymptotic method of seismic SSI analysis for the multiply-supported structures. In this paper the transfer functions from the free-field motion to the basements’ motions are obtained for the two-base structure in the frequency domain. The results are verified against the full analysis carried out by SASSI computer code. Simplified structure modeling the NPP Reactor Building with transportation portal is considered.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


“First Break in, then Sort Out” Principle is Unacceptable in Science

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper analyses the issues of objectiveness of published data on advanced building materials and structures and current experimental methods used to determine design characteristics of building components erected both in ordinary and seismic areas of Russia.
When conducting experimental studies, it is important to observe continuity. Furthermore, the attention is to be paid to obligation to observe the required regulations in studies of new structures.


Issue:   
Authors:    Granovsky A.V.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


The maximum principle of Pontryagin and emergency seismic load

Key words:  
Annotation:   The work proposes the methods for determining special and emergency seismic loads and emergency calculation situations required in accordance with the current legislation. It is refined the previously proposed way of describing the structure movements with the help of nonlinear ordinary differential equations and the existence of stable limit cycles for them, leading to the appearance of stationary periodic solutions-self-oscillations. It is shown that the task of selecting a special (emergency) seismic action is reduced to the task of optimal speed, when the transition from one extreme position of the structure to another with external seismic action takes place in a minimum time. A proposal was made to apply special (emergency) harmonic seismic actions with a special frequency close to the natural oscillation frequency of the structure as a maximum design earthquake in seismic regions. Emergency seismic horizontal loads are allocated as loads that create an emergency situation. An algorithm for determining the special frequency of emergency seismic actions is presented. It is based on the comparison of the maximum displacements of structures arising from beats and self-oscillations.
Issue:   
Authors:    Vedyakov Ivan I.    Vladimir K. Vostrov   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Problem of Statistical Uncertainty in Structural Reliability Analysis

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Annotation:  

The sources and the character of uncertainties in engineering modeling for reliability analysis are discussed. The paper comprises the Bayesian approach for the correct analysis (study) of the mechanical properties and influence of uncertainty on reliability index.


Issue:   
Authors:    Raizer V.D.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Problems of Scientific and Technical Support, Technical Inspection and Monitoring of Unique Structures in Kazakhstan Taking into Account the Requirements of the Eurocodes

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article highlights the issues and the experience of KazMIRD Institute in the field of scientific and technical support and monitoring of technically complex and unique buildings and structures on the example of Astana taking into account the requirements of the Eurocodes in the process of the construction and operation.
Issue:   
Authors:    Kropachev P.A.    Kurohtina I.A.    Nuguginov G.S.   
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   


Problems of Estimating Earthquake Resistance of Offshore Pipelines

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The problem of ensuring earthquake resistance of offshore pipelines is an integrated one and consists of a number of sub-problems: dynamic analysis of the “structure-base” system, analysis of interaction mechanisms, selection of design schemes and pipeline design methods. The features of the offshore pipeline earthquake resistance design estimate are considered. The approaches to design of offshore pipelines are offered depending on the laying scheme. The relationships on risk assessment for the pipeline to be designed are given.


Issue:   
Authors:    Muravyova L.V.    Timofeyev O.Ya.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Problems of designing rope roads in seismic field districts of the Russian Federation

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article observes questions of designing of ropeways, connected with estimating of seismic actions with a respect to codes of Russian Federation. Analysis of designing process of aerial people carrying ropeways in lack codes conditions
Issue:   
Authors:    Soloviev A.V.    Vasiukov I.A.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Problems of Seismic Zoning Mapping for Building Codes

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper analyzes some contradictory situations occurring sometimes when OSR-97 seismic maps are used together with the List of settlements on the RF territory and the SNIP II-7-81* “Construction in seismic areas”.
Some proposals are presented to alleviate these contradictions. The conclusions are presented on the necessity to take account of OCP-97 application experience in development of subsequent versions of seismic maps and seismic codes.
Issue:   
Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.   
Rubric:     Problems of development of seismic zoning maps for building codes   


Program of Increasing Stability of Residential Buildings, Basic Projects and Life-Support Systems in Russia’s Seismic Areas up to 2018

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper discusses some results of the Federal Target Program “Increasing Stability of Residential Buildings, Basic Projects and Life-Support Systems in Seismic Areas of the Russian Federation in 2009-2018” touched upon at conferences in Vladivostok, on the Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands and in Kamchatka held by Russia’s Prime Minister Mr. D.Medvedev together with the Cabinet’s members and experts on 2-4 July 2012.
Issue:   
Authors:    Smirnov V. I.   
Rubric:     Federal Target Programs   


Project of Changes and Addendums Guide Lines SP 14.13330.2014 “Construction in Seismic Regions. SNiP II-7-81*” (first drafting)

Key words:  
Annotation:   Experts of TSNIISK named after. V.A. Koucherenko JSC “RCC”, IPE RAS, АIIS and workgroup members have prepared and passed the first drafting project of changes and addendums SP 14.13330.2014 in FСS of the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation for accommodation on site for public discussion.
Issue:   
Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.    Bubis A.A.    Gusev Ye.L.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Operational Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake: Normal and Abnormal Relations

Key words:   seismic analysis, Fourier spectra, response spectra, synthesis of the time-histories
Annotation:   The authors study the unexpected effect occurred in the practical design: the in-structure response spectrum for OBE proved to exceed the response spectrum for DBE at certain frequencies. It turns out that the reason is in the «abnormal» relation between Fourier spectra for the OBE and DBE time-histories. Such behavior was the result of the independent syntheses of the OBE and DBE time-histories matching target response spectra. «Normal» behavior of the response spectra does not guarantee «normal» behavior of the amplitude Fourier spectra throughout the whole frequency range, if phase Fourier spectra are independent. The «abnormal» effect under consideration is nonphysical. The authors give some recommendations to avoid it in the future analyses.


Issue:    №2 2019
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.    Naumkin A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Strength of Reinforced Concrete Structures Under Low-Cycle Seismic Loads

Key words:  
Annotation:   Given the results of experimental research of reinforced concrete beams statically determinated and inderteminated with normal and strained reinforcement under alternating low cyclic high-level type of seismic loads . New experimental data on low cyclic strength and deformation of given structures assessed by theoretical calculations have been received. The analysis and conclusions of the studies and recommendations on calculation were supported.
Issue:   
Authors:    Abakanov M.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Durability of Ferro-Concrete Elements With Zoned Reinforcing of the Steel Fiber at Short-Term Dynamic Load

Key words:  
Annotation:  

In given article the results theoretical and experimental researches bent are submitted and is compressed — bent of steel fiber reinforced concrete elements at static and short-term dynamic loads. The valid nonlinear diagram of deformation of steel fibre reinforced concrete and its analytical description is received at short-term dynamic load. Complex experimental researches of work of steel fibre reinforced concrete designs are lead at static and short-term dynamic loads, the new scientific data are received. Methods of calculation of durability and crack-stability such elements are developed in view of nonlinear work of concrete, armature and steel fiber reinforced concrete. The grant devoted to an estimation of a technical condition, to restoration and amplification of ferro-concrete designs of buildings and constructions with application of steel fiber reinforced concrete is developed.


Issue:   
Authors:    Plevkov V.S.    Utkin D.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Developing Methods of Structural Earthquake Resistance. Polemical Notes for Discussion

Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:   
Authors:    Abovsky N.P.    Deordiyev S.V.    Inzhutov I.S.   
Rubric:     Conferences. Symposia. Meetings   


Development of Algorithms for Interpreting the Method of Standing Waves for the Study of Buildings and Structures of Complex Constructions

Key words:   engineering seismology, seismic resistance of buildings, standing waves, coherence in time, microseisms
Annotation:   According to the results of research on complex engineering objects, results were obtained that demonstrate significant deviations from the models of buildings and structures that are used as the basis for calculating seismic resistance and structural stability. Firstly, it is the existence of reflecting seismic oscillations of the boundaries inside the building, when standing waves form a common field for the building as a whole and a local field for a part of the object, secondly, a block structure of the object, when there are natural oscillations of different multiplicity with a different area of the object’s coverage, when some blocks independently oscillate, they unite into one system; thirdly, the existence of walls with double reflecting properties, which changes the field of standing waves; fourthly, the complex geometry of the object causes the fields of standing waves, It is described by two wave numbers. Experimental data show that in the theory of buildings it is necessary to move to the models of nested resonators, models of coupled resonators, and the verification of models should be entrusted to the standing wave method.
Issue:    №5 2019
Authors:    Emanov Alexandr F.    Bakh A.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Development of base oscillation models and regulatory approaches to the calculation of critical structures for seismic impacts

Key words:   emergency situation, resonance, acute resonance, seismic effects, emergency loads, special loads
Annotation:   Two principal approaches to generating calculated seismic impacts, proposed in the practice of earthquake - resistant construction, were used and  refined: for the construction site and for the structure. There are special, emergency and extreme seismic loads that create an emergency situation - the occurrence of a mode of beats or resonant vibrations, as well as self-oscillations (acute resonance), leading to a violation of either the operational properties or the load-bearing capacity of the structure. Proposals are formulated for the revision of the Russian standards of earthquake-resistant construction, based on three-level impact for responsible and unique structures using the proposed refined approaches to generating calculated seismic impacts.

Issue:    №2 2020
Authors:    Vedyakov Ivan I.    Vladimir K. Vostrov   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Development of models of vibrations of critical structures and regulatory approaches to calculations for seismic impacts

Key words:   emergency situation, resonance, acute resonance, parametric resonance, seismic impacts, emergency and special seismic loads, interaction with the base, position stability, dynamic stability, nonlinear oscillations
Annotation:  

The calculation of the stability of the equilibrium position required by the canceled and current norms of earthquake-resistant construction, and the calculation of the dynamic stability of various partial movements, the requirements for the necessity of which are absent both in the proposals for the norms of the new generation and in the current norms of earthquake-resistant construction, are the main ones in the calculation and design of structures taking into account their interaction with the base. Special and emergency seismic loads are identified that create an emergency situation − the occurrence of a mode of beating or resonant vibrations, as well as parametric resonance and nonlinear vibrations that occur after the loss of stability of the position of structures.


Issue:   
Authors:    Vedyakov Ivan I.    Vladimir K. Vostrov   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Development of Models for Seismic Effect Design Accelerograms

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper presents comparison of basic methods for generating synthesized accelerograms. The model of generating a synthesized seismic effect for a specific construction site is offered. The comparative analysis of methods for generating synthesized accelerograms based on semi-empirical and deterministic approaches for the 40-storey building site in Grozny is made. The comparative analysis of the offered model for generating artificial accelerograms and the real record in terms of the El-Centro earthquake is carried out.


Issue:   
Authors:    Vakhrina G.N.    Smirnov V. I.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Developing the Regulatory Framework for Construction of Earthquake-Resistant Transport Facilities in Turkmenistan

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The description of Turkmenistan’s guidelines for analysis and design of bridges in earthquake-prone areas is given. The document is intended for design of bridges with earthquake protection elements, the bridges of higher importance, the bridges on sites with soft water-saturated  soils and other  projects, the  analysis of which is not envisaged by the current regulatory documents. The guidelines makes provision for the use of BBD-design with two levels of peak accelerations  for strength-level and maximum strength-level events.


Issue:   
Authors:    Ilyasov I.B.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Liquefaction of soils bases explo sive compaction method as a way to improve seismic safety of buildings at a significantly reduced dynamic effects during its implementation

Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:   
Authors:    Minaev O.P.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Standard Approaches to the Seismic Analysis of Civil Structures and NPP Structures. Part I. Difference in the Design Seismic Input

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Approaches to seismic analysis of important civil structures and main NPP structures are compared to each other. These approaches are implemented in the recently published Russian standards in both fields. In the first part of the paper seismic inputs are discussed. Certain recommendations for the further improvement of standards are developed.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Standard Approaches to the Seismic Analysis of Civil Structures and NPP Structures. Part II. Soil-Structure Interaction

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The author continues to compare approaches to seismic analysis of important civil structures and main NPP structures. These approaches are implemented in the recently published Russian standards in both fields. In the second part of the paper soil-structure interaction is discussed. 


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Standard Approaches to the Seismic Analysis of Civil Structures and NPP Structures. Part III. Linear?Spectral Theory

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The author continues to compare approaches to seismic analysis of important civil structures and main NPP structures. These approaches are implemented in the recently published Russian standards in both fields. In the third part of the paper linear-spectral theory is discussed.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Standard Approaches to the Seismic Analysis of Civil Structures and NPP Structures. Part IV. Nonlinear Analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The author continues to compare approaches to seismic analysis of important civil structures and main NPP structures. These approaches are implemented in the recently published Russian standards in both fields. In the fourth part of the paper nonlinear analysis is discussed.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Differences in Seismic Codes as Potential Ways for the Development of Civil Codes

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The author comments on certain differences between civil seismic codes and seismic codes in nuclear industry. These differences may point out the ways for the further development of civil codes.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Development of Tooling to Conduct Monitoring of Integrated Seismic Safety in the Russian Federation’s Areas and Conduction of this Monitoring within the Framework of the Federal Target Program

Key words:  
Annotation:   a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:439:"

The paper presents the basic provisions of the Federal Target Program “Increasing stability of residential buildings, basic facilities and life-support systems in seismic areas of the Russian Federation for 2009-2018”. The research tools for the integrated seismic safety monitoring of the Russian Federation’s territory, the proposals and supplements for updating of the current regulatory documents are formed within this program.

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Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.    Vorontsova N.Yu.    Smirnov V. I.    Sushkov P.A.   
Rubric:     Federal Target Programs   


Analysis of Strong-Motion Accelerograms for Irkutsk from Various Source Zones

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper deals with seismic hazard to Irkusk associated with different source zones. The average amplitude spectra of accelerations have been obtained for each zone. The spectra have been corrected for epicentral distances and probable magnitude. These amplitude and phase spectra have been used to calculate the expected accelerograms in each source zone for the 1st-category soils. The intensity has been estimated from peak accelerations. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Dzhurik V.I.    Drennov A.F.    Serebrennikov S.P.   
Rubric:     Monitoring the state of natural-technical systems   


Dynamic Loads Analysis of Vibration-Isolated Systems using Transfer Functions

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper presents a method of the vertical oscillations analysis for vibrationisolated systems with three degrees of freedom — a method of using transfer functions. The formulas for transfer functions are obtained. The case study (equipment, considered as a system with two degrees of freedom, and the dynamic vibration absorber) is designed using the method described above and the proven method of «normal» forms. The diagrams of the system lower-mass vibrations with and without damper are presented.
Issue:   
Authors:    Osipova M. V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Vibration Calculation for Complex-Shaped Machine Foundations Under Dynamic Loads of Various Types

Key words:  
Annotation:  

According to actual regulations vibration calculation for rigid machine foundation under different dynamic loads is calculated according to models of 1‑and 2‑degrees-of-freedom systems. However in many cases machine foundations are of complex nonsymmetrical shape, and so it is necessary to employ a more complicated model with 6 degrees of freedom.

Methods for machine foundations vibration calculation are being developed in the general case of the lack of symmetry. Vibrational displacements under impulsive dynamic load are presented through matrix exponential. Directions are given for finding power spectral density functions and root mean square values of vibrational displacements under stationary random dynamic loads, including white noise. The results obtained are easy to implement and make it possible to fulfil the vibration prognosis and limitation requirements.


Issue:   
Authors:    Kholmyansky M.L.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Calculating Steel Bridge Spans on Earthquake Loads

Key words:  
Annotation:   It is shown that in many cases while calculating bridge spans it is necessary to take into account the soil-structure interaction. If the pier is higher than 5 m, energy dissipation for the main oscillation mode is determined substantially by energy losses, caused by wave propagation in the soil base, thereby the dynamic ratio drops significantly. Furthermore, if a bridge span is shorter than 55 m and the base modulus of deformation Eo < 30 MPa, the force in the piers can be determined by the second mode, for which the superstructure and piers oscillate in antiphase. For bridges with spans over 80 m long at Eo > 30 MPa, seismic forces for spans and piers are determined by the first oscillation mode. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Van Haybin    Vorobyova K.V.    Guan Yonghai    Smirnova L.N.    Sorokina G.V.    Freze M.V.     Chiang Yuan   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Reliability Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Column

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article describes the experimental-theoretic method for the estimation of relative deformation of reinforced concrete column on the operation stage. The article also proposes methods for the calculation of reinforced concrete columns reliability on the strength criteria in condition of the single type of the stress plot of concrete column (compression). The offered methods take into account the incompleteness of statistical information. The article is intended for specialists in inspection and testing of reinforced concrete structures.
Issue:   
Authors:    Beloglazov A. D.    Solovyov S.A.    Utkin V.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Calculation of Soil Bases Reliability of Buildings and Structures on Bearing Capacity Under Reconstruction

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article describes new methods of calculation of soil bases reliability (probability of non-failure) according to the load-bearing capacity criterion at the operation stage. The reliability of soil bases is considered as an integral part for assessing the overall operational reliability of buildings and structures, as well as for making a decision on the possibility and feasibility of reconstruction with increasing load. The proposed method of reliability calculation can be used to assess the reliability of load-bearing elements of the overhaul with replacement of parts of the building. The algorithm of the method of reliability calculation is presented in the numerical example of reliability calculation. 
Issue:   
Authors:    Kaberova А.А.    Solovyov S.A.    Utkin V.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Calculation of reliability of slab foundations on soil bases by sag criterion

Key words:  
Annotation:   a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:499:"

The article describes the method of calculation of soil bases reliability with limited statistical information using controllable parameters of calculated model by the possibilistic method according to the non-admissibility criterion of general setting level change value taking using generalization principle of Zaden’s, L. fuzzy sets theory. Design formulas are given, and the algorithm of soil bases calculation reliability according to the deformation criterion is shown using an example.

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Issue:   
Authors:    Kaberova А.А.    Utkin V.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Calculation of Damaged Reinforced Concrete Plates of Covering Taking into Account the Corrosion of Concrete and Fittings

Key words:   diagram method corrosion damage, reinforced concrete slabs, bearing capacity
Annotation:   The article presents a diagram method of calculation of reinforced concrete slabs. The considered flor slabs were subjected to intensive inflence of climatic conditions of Moscow, as a result of which they received diffrent schemes of damage. The bearing capacity of these plates varied depending on the scheme (section) of the plate damage. At the same time, concrete tests of damaged sections of structures, as well as corrosion-damaged reinforcing bars were performed. The diagrams of concrete deformation of undamaged and damaged areas and the diagrams of stretching of damaged reinforcing bars are obtained. On the basis of experimental diagrams of concrete and rebar deformation, a method of analytical determination of the bearing capacity of the plates was developed.
Issue:    №5 2019
Authors:    Minasyan A.    Piatikrestovskii K.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Calculation of the Strength of the Walls of the Monolithic Buildings Under Seismic Action

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Vibro dynamic tests of the fragments of monolithic concrete buildings to their destruction in the Chisinau municipality was the final phase of research, aiming at developing effective reinforcement schemes of monolithic reinforced concrete buildings in seismic areas, developing the method for wall calculations based on the specifications and methods for consolidations of these buildings.

This experiment allowed to clarify the calculation models of the monolithic constructions and to test earlier developed analytical methodology, to calculate the seismic impact, to validate experimentally the effectiveness of the various systems of reinforced solid walls, to monitor changes in their dynamic characteristics as in constructions of plastic deformation and damage.

The author is proposing a new analysis model of a shear wall of a multistory monolithic building subjected to a special load combination and also a new scheme of reinforcing of such shear walls.


Issue:   
Authors:    Zolotkov A.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Site Response Analysis for “Side” Soil Profiles

Key words:   site response analysis (SRA), best estimate (BE), upper boundary (UB) and lower boundary (LB) soil profiles, foundation input response spectra (FIRS)
Annotation:   The authors suggest a new procedure of Site Response Analysis (SRA) for the so-called “side” (or additional) soil profiles – Low Boundary (LB) and Upper Boundary (UB). Standards require the analyses of these profiles in addition to the Best Estimate profile (BE) to account for the uncertainty in the input data about soil properties. The authors suggest stopping using the same input time history for all three profiles as a control motion at the surface, because it corresponds to the different physical seismic excitations coming form the depth. This is not in line with the ideology of Standards. Instead the authors suggest using the same time history as a control motion at the outcropped surface of the underlying half-space. This is also not completely correct, because for these three profiles (BE, UB and LB) the underlying half-spaces are also different. However, due to the physical considerations if all half-spaces are stiff enough, the error should not be so important. The effect of the 
proposed change is demonstrated on a particular site. The changes in the velocity and damping profiles have proved to be negligible, but the difference in the resulting response spectra at the outcropped surface of the foundation mat has proved to be significant. Generally, the response spectra for the “side” profiles came closer to spectrum for the BE profile. This result reflects the real world logic.


Issue:    №1 2020
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.    Antonov N.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Calculation of the Bearing Capacity of the Ground Base for Baretta and Definition of the Effective Depth of the Foundation

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Deep-hole slotted foundations are relatively new constructive parts of buildings and structures. Slot-hole foundations are considered to be foundations of deep embedding, if the vertical loads on it are perceived not only by the soil in the base of the foundation, but also by friction-adhesion forces along its lateral surfaces. Improving the methods of their calculation increases the safety of their operation and is an actual problem. A new description of the operation of the foundation in the soil of the foundation is proposed on the basis of the occurrence of friction-adhesion forces along its lateral surface as a result of microdisplacements (deformations) of the surface layers of the foundation material in the soil. On the basis of a new approach to the description of the operation of the slotted foundation of a deep foundation in the foundation soil, a calculation formula is given for the bearing capacity of the foundation soil and the formula for determining the effective foundation depth.


Issue:    №6 2018
Authors:    Utkin V.S.    Korepina I.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   

read more

Deep-hole slotted foundations are relatively new constructive parts of buildings and structures. Slot-hole foundations are considered to be foundations of deep embedding, if the vertical loads on it are perceived not only by the soil in the base of the foundation, but also by friction-adhesion forces along its lateral surfaces. Improving the methods of their calculation increases the safety of their operation and is an actual problem. A new description of the operation of the foundation in the soil of the foundation is proposed on the basis of the occurrence of friction-adhesion forces along its lateral surface as a result of microdisplacements (deformations) of the surface layers of the foundation material in the soil. On the basis of a new approach to the description of the operation of the slotted foundation of a deep foundation in the foundation soil, a calculation formula is given for the bearing capacity of the foundation soil and the formula for determining the effective foundation depth.


Calculation of the central and eccentrically compressed pipe-concrete structures strength

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper presents the results of testing full-size flexural pipeconcrete structures, which are used in the actual building objects. Technology of the structures met the construction conditions. Formulae for structural design of such constructions are presented. The formulae are based on the classical principle of structural mechanics as a condition of equilibrium of external and internal forces acting in the cross-section, as well as the conditions of equilibrium of these forces moments. Comparison of experimental and calculated data has been performed. Confirmation of the fact that the formulae developed give the results in good agreement with the experimental values is presented.
Issue:   
Authors:    Arleninov P.    Krylov S.    Smirnov P.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Calculated Method of Evaluating the Ground Seismic Conditions

Key words:  
Annotation:  

In the article the existing methods of the realization of seismic zoning with the aid of the calculated method are examined. Are given the well known and newly developed calculated methods of seismic zoning, which form calculated method.

The use in the calculations of the indices of nonlinear phenomena makes it possible to maximally bring the eventual results of seismic zoning closer to the real physical phenomena, which are observed with the strong earthquakes. So, it is completely confidently considered by the so-called. bimodularity of soils. The calculated method of seismic zoning already gives the possibility to completely present the results in the form of accelerations. Consequently, in addition to the traditionally used intensity increments, it is necessary to obtain the results of the basic instrument method of seismic zoning also in the form of the accelerations.


Issue:   
Authors:    Zaalishvili V.B.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Implementation of the «Residual Term» Concept in Seismic Analysis by Modal and Spectral Methods

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Modal method and spectral method of seismic analysis are discussed. The concept of «residual term», enabling to account for the seismic response along high-frequency modes instead of excluding this response is presented. Such an approach is required by standards in nuclear industry. The author comments on the implementation of the «residual term» concept in the software. In particu­lar, the differences between «additional modes» and traditional natural modes are discussed.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


A Comprehensive Methodology for Housing Stock Record in Terms of the Town of Shelekhov under “The Seismic Safety of the Irkutsk Region Program”

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The paper deals with the results of the housing stock record in the town of Shelekhov in the Irkutsk Region. The use has been made of the IEC SB RAS comprehensive methodology of record for the Baikal Region. In keeping with this methodology, a basic network of representative buildings comprising 326 objects has been created in Irkutsk, Angarsk and Shelekhov. The town of Shelekhov (47.500 inhabitants, 500 residential buildings) has proved to be a suitable site for approbating the comprehensive record methodology.


Issue:   
Authors:    Berzhinskaya L.P.    Berzhinsky Yu.A.    Gorbach P.S.    Ivankina L.I.    Kiselev D.V.    Salandayeva O.I.    Usatyi R.A.    Chernykh Ye.N.    Shagun A.N.   
Rubric:     Federal Target Programs   


Implementation of the principles of seismic isolation for effective seismic protection of oil and gas facilities

Key words:   Seismic protection of tanks, oil tank, gas tank, seismic isolation supports
Annotation:   Today, in the world practice of earthquake-resistant construction, there is a fairly large amount of information about the destruction of reservoirs for storing oil and gas products. To protect such structures abroad, it is proposed to use special means of seismic protection, which make it possible to reduce the destruction of tank structures and preserve the fuel stored in them. However, on the territory of Russia, these methods of seismic protection have not yet become widespread. This report presents research on the application of seismic isolation of reservoirs for oil and gas products in seismically active regions.
Issue:    #5-2021
Authors:    Tatiana A. Belash    Dymov Evgenii Antonovich   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Reserves of Fail-Safe Concept of Girderless Frame under Impacts Beyond the Design Basis

Key words:  
Annotation:  

The subject of research is survivability of damaged structures of the IMS type girderless frame full-scale fragment prestressed with high-strength cables under the effects of beyond the design basis events. The structure survival indices are provided for by the system strength margins and its compensation characteristics. They are conditioned by the biaxial compression stress field in floor elements due to prestressing, which in accident condition evolution block the crack-formation processes and development of plastic ranges of stress.


Issue:   
Authors:    Berzhinskaya L.P.    Berzhinsky Yu.A.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION OF BUILDING WITH RUBBER-METAL SEISMIC ISOLATION BY STANDING WAVE METHOD (ON THE EXAMPLE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING BUILDING OF THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF TAIWAN, TAIPEI)

Key words:  
Annotation:   We investigate the Civil Engineering Building of the National University of Taiwan in the city of Taipei by standing wave method. This construction is equipped with seismic isolation system based on rubber-metal bearings. We suggest the method to estimate its effectiveness which is based on comparison of the oscillations from different intensity earthquakes with theoretical accelerograms developed with the use of results of building investigation by standing wave method. The oscillations of the building are forecasted by a linear model if the seismic impact is weak (intensity not exceeding 3 on the MSK-64 scale). While with the intensity 4 on the MSK-64 scale we can see nonlinear attenuation of oscillations connected with the reaction of rubber-metal bearings on seismic impact.
Issue:   
Authors:    Liseikin A.    Seleznev V.    Bryksin A.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Results of the microseismic monitoring data preliminary analysis in the near region of the Akkuyu NPP construction site

Key words:  
Annotation:   Preliminary results of the seismic monitoring data analysis forthe period from November 2011 to December 2015 by a local seismic network in the near region of the NPP site are presented. Three clusters of seismic activity (swarms) localized on land and offshore, were identified. Clusters are close to isometric in plan, elongated in depth and not associated with known tectonic elements of the area. Qualitative assessment of the attenuation field variability in the region is obtained by the short-period coda-wave method. The characteristics of the shear wave attenuation field in clusters are close to each other, as well as to similar characteristics of the shear wave attenuation field near the Karaman-Mut faults system. The shear wave attenuation for zones located outside the faults system and clusters is obviously less. It is supposed that isolated clusters zones as well as fault zones can be referred to weakened fluid-saturated zones.
Issue:   
Authors:    Aptikaev S.F.    Aptikaeva O.I.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


THE RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL RESEARCHES OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN LAYERS OF ROCK-SOLID WALLS

Key words:  
Annotation:   The Analysis of effects of destructive earthquakes shows, that the brick buildings in the seismic areas (including buildings built with reinforced concrete insert) do not quite provide the necessary reliability during an earthquake. One of possible solutions, that satisfy the requirements of seismic resistance and having high resistance of heat transfer is discussed in this article. It is supporting rock-solid wall for areas with high seismic risk (up to 10 point of MSK-64), developed at the Research Center of Earthquake Engineering (RCEE) TSNIISK named after V.A. Koucherenko.
Issue:   
Authors:    Bubis A.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №4 2019
Rubric:     Conferences. Symposia. Meetings   


Solving a direct problem as a new method of seismic microzonation

Key words:   seismic microzonation, direct problem, seismic properties of soils, model, response spectrum, dynamic coefficient, average model, shear wave velocity, seismic rigidity
Annotation:  

The article describes a new type of seismic microzonation, called the method of solving a direct problem. The main methodological technique in this case is the formation of  models of the soil layer on the basis of complex engineering-geological and geophysical studies. An original computer simulation technique based on the use of a short acceleration pulse as theinitial seismic impact is proposed. In the calculations of the increment of seismic intensity, a new formula is used that takes into account all the factors of the influence of soil properties on the parameters of seismic impacts – seismic rigidity, water saturation, resonant effects and the nonlinearity of the reaction of soils to strong seismic impacts. Based on the obtained data, the models of ground layers at the construction site are mapped and the parameters of seismic impacts that correspond to the properties of each model of ground massif are determined. The proposals presented in the article are reflected in the regulatory documents devoted to the SMZ of objects of increased responsibility and territorial planning


Issue:   
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.    Vladimir V. Pogrebchenko    Sergey N. Nikitin   



Anti-Seismic and Seismically Isolated Construction Design Code (Section 1–11)

Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:   
Authors:    Editor   
Rubric:     Official documents   


Seismic Safety of Urban Development and Means of Its Improvement

Key words:  
Annotation:   The author estimates the area seismic risk and the most important local factors affecting its level in terms of Uzbekistan’s cities. The methods of seismic risk reduction are considered. The author offers new technical solutions to strengthen thermally insulated bearing structures that allow combining functions of bearing structure strengthening and protecting their additional insulation.
Issue:   
Authors:    Khakimov Sh.A.   
Rubric:     Urban problems of seismic safety. monitoring of hazardous natural and man-made processes   


The Seismic Hazard in the Volgograd Region Is Underestimated by ОCP-97 Seismic Zoning Plans of the RF at the Expense of Tectonic Conditions Simplification

Key words:  
Annotation:   The seismic hazard in seismic zoning plans for the territory of the RF OCP-97 for each region was defined depending on the tectonic structural element of the earthquake source zone. For the territory of the Volgograd region the seismic hazard was determined by the domain model of an earthquake source zone, which rules out the presence of lineaments (tectonic faults). The paper gives conclusions of the well known scientists of Russia on availability of a network of lineaments on the region territory. The plans with the increased seismic hazard to the Volgograd region territory are offered.
Issue:   
Authors:    Maslyayev A.V.   
Rubric:     Monitoring the state of natural-technical systems   


Seismic Hazard of the Territory of Syria

Key words:   architectural monuments of Syria, earthquakes, seismicity, building structures, earthquake repeatability, peak ground acceleration
Annotation:   In Syria there are a large number of architectural monuments, buildings and structures that have suffered as a result of past earthquakes and hostilities, such as the Great Mosque in Aleppo, the castle of Krak de Chevalier in the province of Homs, the triumphal arch in the city of Palmyra, etc. The situation is exacerbated the fact that a certain number of existing buildings and structures in Syria does not meet the modern requirements of anti-seismic construction. Therefore, information about the seismicity of Syria is very important for the preservation of monuments of architecture, buildings and structures in this country. For this purpose, the author conducted an analysis of the seismological situation in Syria. The data of historical and instrumental earthquakes in this territory were studied, a table with seismicity was compiled, by analogy with situational seismicity in the Russian Federation, for some large cities in Syria. Values of peak ground acceleration (PGA) were obtained for various earthquake recurrence periods.
Issue:    №6 2019
Authors:    Aldrebi Ziad Ahmad   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Seismic Monitoring of Technogenic Impact on the Territory of Western Siberia

Key words:   Western Siberia, seismological monitoring, assessment of seismic effct, industrial explosions, induced seismicity
Annotation:   The use of a network of seismological stations allowed us to estimate the level of anthropogenic seismic impact on buildings and structures in Western Siberia. Considered induced seismicity at mining sites. It is shown that the number of manmade earthquakes is growing, and the largest energy has reached a destructive level. An assessment of the level of impact on the region of industrial explosions is given, methods for monitoring the seismic effect of industrial explosions are developed, and measures are proposed to ensure the reduction of the seismic effect of industrial explosions. It is shown that for low-seismic areas it is necessary to carry out the refinement of seismic hazard due to man-made factors.

Issue:    №4 2019
Authors:    Emanov Alexandr F.    Emanov Alexey A.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Seismic Microzoning of Vladikavkaz City Territory

Key words:  
Annotation:   The results of seismic microzoning of the territory of Vladikavkaz City held in 2011 are considered. Basing on the results of detailed seismic zoning and macroseismic investigation of the past earthquakes the reference soil (the average ground conditions) in the form of unsaturated clayey soils of medium-hard consistency was determined. The initial intensity (seismicity) of the territory equal to 8 points is attributed to this soil. The intensity increments for sites with typical soil conditions were estimated by means of instrumental, analytical and instrumental-analytical methods of seismic microzoning. The corresponding seismic microzoning map of Vladikavkaz in terms of macroseismic intensity units in the scale of 1:10000 was created.
Issue:   
Authors:    Gabeyeva I.L.    Dzeboyev B.A.    Dzeranov B.V.    Mel’kov D.A.    Shepelev V.D.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Earthquake engineering of the Russian Federation as a priority direction of activity of JSC Research Center of Constructions

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Annotation:   a:2:{s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"HTML";s:4:"TEXT";s:882:"The article provides a brief historical background on the leading schools of earthquake-resistant construction and seismic isolation, formed on the basis of TsNIISK named after V.A. Coucherenko, JSC Research Center of Construction. A brief review of research works, monitoring and development of scientific and technical and regulatory documentation in the field of earthquake-proof construction, carried out by the institutes of JSC Research Center of Construction  in recent years is given. The purpose of these works was to solve the tasks set by the President and the Government of the Russian Federation in terms of ensuring the integrated seismic safety of the territory of the Russian Federation. Prospects are out lined and proposals are given by JSC Research Center of Construction on the further development of earthquake-resistant construction  in the Russian Federation.";}
Issue:   
Authors:    Zvezdov A.I.    Smirnova L.N.    Vedyakov Ivan I.    Bubis A.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


SEISMIC RESPONSE OF LONG UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES: VALIDITY OF ENGINEERING APPROACHES AND INCOMPETENCE OF AN ANALOGY WITH OVER GROUND CONSTRUCTIONS

Key words:  
Annotation:   The existing engineering approaches in seismodynamics of long underground structures are presented: the theory of full contact without relative displacement at soil-structure interface, the approaches are related to modeling of the soil-structure interaction by simple deformable elements, and the approaches based on hypotheses about nature of the "laws" describing this interaction. Based on the exact statement of the problems, ranges of applicability of the engineering approaches are clarified. It is shown, that translation of the methods developed for above ground constructions to underground structures is not competent and may introduce errors.
Issue:   
Authors:    Israilov M.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Seismodynamic Problems of Underground Pipelines of Complex Configuration

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Annotation:  

Differential equations and appropriate boundary and initial conditions of Г-shaped pipelines are derived on the basis of Hamilton-Ostrogradskiy variation principle. Derived system of equations is solved by Finite Difference Method of the second order of accuracy. The program is formed on the basis of the algorithm of computer realization in oriented Delphi 7. Results of solution of dynamic problems of underground Г-shaped pipelines are presented in the form of graphs.


Issue:   
Authors:    Bekmirzaev D.A.    Rashidov T.R.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Seismic Isolation as a Current Seismic Building Protection Method in Russia

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Annotation:  

The article gives examples of the tragic consequences of strong earthquakes, which killed more than 60 % of the total number of natural disaster victims and which caused more than a half of economic losses from all natural disasters as a whole. The examples are presented of high-rise buildings for various purposes, designed, under construction or completed, in cities, such as Sochi or Grozny. All presented buildings are provided with seismic protection systems in the form of seismic isolation.


Issue:   
Authors:    Smirnov V. I.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Seismic Isolation Under the Base Mat of Structure Interacting With Soil. Part I. One‑Dimensional Linear Model

Key words:  
Annotation:   Seismic isolation under the base mat has a special feature: the lower plate of the seismic isolation system (SIS) interacts with soil foundation. These SSI effects are of special importance for heavy structures. In terms of “platform model” there is a “soil support” with certain stiffness and damping installed under the lower base mat. SIS provides another support sequentially linked to the “soil support” via the lower base mat. The combined effect of these two supports depends on the combination of their parameters. In the paper the author uses the simplest one-dimensional model to study the impact of SIS on the seismic structural response considering SSI effects.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


SEISMIC ISOLATION UNDER THE BASE MAT OF STRUCTURE INTERACTING WITH SOIL. PART II: MULTI-DIMENSIONAL LINEAR MODEL

Key words:  
Annotation:   Seismic isolation under the base mat has a special feature: the lower plate of the seismic isolation system (SIS) interacts with soil foundation. These SSI effects are of special importance for heavy structures. In terms of “platform model” under the lower base mat there is a “soil support” with certain stiffness and damping. SIS provides another support sequentially linked to the “soil support” via the lower base mat. The combined effect of these two supports depends on the combination of their parameters. In the first part of the paper the author used the simplest one-dimensional model. In the second part he studies the multi-dimensional model enabling the consideration of the link between horizontal and rocking responses.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


SEISMIC ISOLATION UNDER THE BASE MAT OF STRUCTURE INTERACTING WITH SOIL. PART III: COMBINED ASYMPTOTIC METHOD

Key words:  
Annotation:   Seismic isolation under the base mat has a special feature: the lower plate of the seismic isolation system (SIS) interacts with soil foundation. These SSI effects are of special importance for heavy structures. In terms of “platform model” under the lower base mat there is a “soil support” with certain stiffness and damping. SIS provides another support sequentially linked to the “soil support” via the lower base mat. The combined effect of these two supports depends on the combination of their parameters. In the first part of the paper the author used the simplest one-dimensional model. In the second part he studied the multi-dimensional model enabling the consideration of the link between horizontal and rocking responses. In the third part he discusses the implementation of the combined asymptotic method (CAM) to the analysis of the “soil-SIS-structure” system.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


SEISMIC ISOLATION UNDER THE BASE MAT OF STRUCTURE INTERACTING WITH SOIL. PART IV: PARTIAL RELEASE OF LIMITATIONS

Key words:  
Annotation:   Seismic isolation under the base mat has a special feature: the lower plate of the seismic isolation system (SIS) interacts with soil foundation. These SSI effects are of special importance for heavy structures. In terms of “platform model” under the lower base mat there is a “soil support” with certain stiffness and damping. SIS provides another support sequentially linked to the “soil support” via the lower base mat. The combined effect of these two supports depends on the combination of their parameters. In the first part of the paper the author used the simplest one-dimensional model. In the second part he studied the multi-dimensional model enabling the consideration of the link between horizontal and rocking responses. In the third part he discussed the implementation of the combined asymptotic method (CAM) to the analysis of the “soil-SIS-structure” system. In the fourth part previously set limitations are partly released.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Earthquake-Resisting Structure of the Cast-In-Situ Concrete Floor

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper describes a technical solution of cast-in-situ concrete floor plates in joist-free frame buildings. The studies helped to find the technical solution of floor plates that allow improving earthquake resistance of joist-free frame buildings.
Issue:   
Authors:    Dukhayev C.-M.Kh.    Dukhayev Kh.-M.S.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Antiseismic Foundation for Permanent Frozen Areas

Key words:  
Annotation:   The I principle of building in permanent frozen and seismic zones is viewed. The I principle is realized by using of high pilework. The special frictional damper is installed between foundation piles. Different constructive solutions of frictional dampers are presented. Behavior resolution of buildings with accepted antiseismic system is given too.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tatiana A. Belash    Sergeev D.A.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Earthquake Engineering on Soft Soils

Key words:  
Annotation:   Some information is presented about the international conference held in Turkmenistan (August 24-28, 2011)
Issue:   
Authors:    Ilyasov I.B.   
Rubric:     Conferences. Symposia. Meetings   


Еarthquake Engineering. Method of Leaning the Building Object on the Ground

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Annotation:  

A new method of leaning the building object on the subgrade is represented via a platform consisting of two ferroconcrete plates. Metal balls are placed between them to create a gap for free moving of the lower plate comparatively to the upper plate – the building base. As a result of such a leaning the effect of the most destructive horizontal seismic oscillations can be totally annulled.


Issue:   
Authors:    Kulov A.R.    Kulov R.P.    Kulova Kh.R.    Fardzinov G.G.   



Seismic stability of vibration-insulated turbine foundations

Key words:   vibration-insulated turbogenerator set foundation, response spectra, seismic stability, earthquake, seismic isolation, structural dynamics, seismic calculation
Annotation:  

The turbogenerator set foundation is a special building structure that unites parts of the turbine and generator unit into a single system and it is used for static and dynamic loads accommodation. The number of designed and constructed power plants in high seismic level areas is large.

Seismic isolation is the most effective way to achieve earthquake resistance of equipment located inside buildings and structures. Achievement of seismic stability power plant turbine foundation by applying a variety of design solutions and seismic isolation systems is a significant issue.

Dynamic calculations were performed in Nastran software using time history analysis and the finite element method. The main criteria for the seismic resistance of a vibration-insulated turbine foundation are the values of the maximum seismic accelerations in the axial direction at the level of the turbine installation and the values of vibration-insulated foundation maximum seismicdeformations of vibration isolators.

The results of computational experiments during investigations allow to estimate the effect of the following factors on seismic resistance of vibration isolated turboset foundations:

- different frequency composition of seismic impact;

- use of vibration isolators of different stiffness;

- accounting of frequency dependence of viscous dampers characteristics;

- use of different calculation methods and computational models.
Issue:    #5-2021
Authors:    Aleksandr E. Babsky    Vladimir A. Tarasov   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Seismic Resistance of High-rise Buildings. International Achievements and Ukrainian Experience

Key words:   high-rise buildings, seismic effects, seismic resistance, wind effects, dynamic characteristics
Annotation:   The results of the research carried out at the NIISK on the design of high-rise buildings in seismic regions are presented. A generalization of the international experience in the design of highrise buildings and construction was carried out. A generalization of methods for determining the seismic load in different countries  and recommendations for the design of high-rise buildings is given. Examples of the construction of high-rise buildings in Kiev, in seismic regions of Ukraine and a number of foreign countries are considered. The modern design systems used for construction of high-rise buildings are analyzed in details.




Issue:    №3 2019
Authors:    Nemchinov Yu.I.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Earthquake Resistance of NPP Soil Base

Key words:  
Annotation:   The method of calculating local stability of the slab foundation base under a specified seismic impact has been developed. The method of predicting accumulation of irreversible foundation settlements during the service life of a structure is offered with consideration of the earthquake recurrence.
Issue:   
Authors:    Stanciver L R   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Earthquake Resistance of Buildings’ Brick Walls Strengthened with Steel Retained Forms

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper shows the test results of strengthening brick walls of buildings and structures with reinforced concrete applications (jackets), made with the use of steel retained forms (SRF) based on expanded steel corrugated mesh.  The efficiency of using steel retained forms for strengthening masonry buildings’ walls, both in unilateral and bilateral variants, has been experimentally proved.
Issue:   
Authors:    Akbiyev R.T.    Gasiyev A.A.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Seismic Stability of Equipment on a Single Support, Partly Embedded in the Soil

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Annotation:  

The report considers the problems of theoretical and experimental analysis of seismic response of equipment placed on a reinforced concrete or steel support. Calculations had been accomplished on the basis of FEM. The procedure made it possible to determine the influence of dimensions of ground area which surrounded the support, soil properties and non-stationary nature of seismic input on the parameters of forced vibrations in the zone of equipment attachment. It is shown, that the amplitude of action on the equipment can considerably exceed the amplitude of seismic ground motions. On the basis of the data received the requirements on the test platform during the full-scale testing of «soil-support-equipment» system had been formulated. Practical realization of these requirements on the seismic platform USP-300 allowed in gross volume to inspect the seismic stability of a standard support on the basis of reinforced concrete strut SB115 7 under conditions of reproducing a non-stationary broadband seismic input of the magnitude 9 earthquake. The testing results had confirmed correctness of the design predicted evaluations.


Issue:   
Authors:    Beliaev V. S.    Demishin S. V.    Khakunov V. Kh.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Instrumental Monitoring System for Seismic Safety of Responsible Structures «Gyumri-01»

Key words:  
Annotation:   The Institute of Geophysics and Engineering Seismology after A. Nazarov National Academy of Sciences Armenia designed and produced a seismic engineering complex that runs in autonomous mode with software package: The complex consists of a system of observational points (surface, borehole), communication and recording units.
Issue:   
Authors:    Geodakyan Edward G.    Karapetyan John K.    Karapetyan S.S.    Hovhannisyan Sevada M.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


FBD “Irkutsk Frame” System for Multi-Storey Buildings and Structures

Key words:  
Annotation:   The FBD “Irkutsk Frame” system (rigid frame bracing system with diaphragms) is presented. Structural features of the design of a unit of the column-girder system and its assembling are described in details. Issues of reducing labor expenditures and resources for producing details and their assembling are considered. Examples of using the FBD “Irkutsk Frame” system under conditions of Irkutsk, seismically active region of construction, are presented. It is noted that the equipment for manufacturing products of the FBD “Irkutsk Frame” system is mainly domestic production.
Issue:   
Authors:    Fotin O.V.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Seismic Isolation Protection System for the 1081-bed Eskişehir City Hospital in Turkey

Key words:   seismic isolation; base shear reduction; no damages; immediate operation
Annotation:   The Eskişehir City Hospital with four building blocks is located east of Istanbul in a highly seismic zone with up to 0,6g PGA. To avoid any damages to the structure or fatalities and enable absolute continued functionality even after the maximum credible earthquake (MCE) event, it was decided to apply seismic isolation with pendulum isolators. This paper will show the design considerations to limit the base shear within the isolated building blocks for the MCE event down to less than 0,13 W (= seismic weight = DL + 0,3LL) on isolator top level and max. 0,2 W on the upper floor building levels and the realization with suitable seismic pendulum isolators. For these low shear level requirements the isolator performance was adjusted to 3,5s effective period and 26% damping. With the strict quality supervision during the production procedure, with third party prototype testing at EU Center in Pavia and with third party production testing at University Munich, the reliability and durability of the isolators to resist up to five or more MCE events without damages was proven. The approach for this project is unique in a way that absolute no damages to the structure, to the content and the seismic isolators have been acceptable for the MCE event .
Issue:    №4 2019
Authors:    Huber Peter    Mark Bresler   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Certifiation System of Seismic Isolation Devices in Japan

Key words:   building code, certifiation system, seismic isolation devices, lead rubber bearing, viscous damper
Annotation:   In In Japan, the building law has revised to include the seismic isolation technology into the building code in 2000. Notifiation (Kokuji) 2009 and 1446 stand for seismic design code and certifiation system of seismic isolation devices, respectively. All seismic isolation devices must be certifid by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) before using. In 2015, the factory production control (FPC) certifiation system to include inspection at factory was strengthened due to one company’s falsifying FPC test data. Since there is no independent testing laboratory in Japan, all the type and FPC tests are usually conducted by the manufacturer themselves. In 2017, changes of characteristics of seismic isolation devices due to the long-period and longduration ground motions have to be considered in the design in the determined long period areas. It is stipulated in the other code. The certification authorities known as notifid inspection bodies are even opened to private companies now. The devices have been roughly classifid into three kinds: isolators, dampers and restoring bearings. The Japan Society of Seismic Isolation (JSSI) has published a 750 pages catalog in 2009 to include all manufacturers for reference. The information about the certifiation authorities and certified devices can be checked easily vie web pages. This paper will focus on the performance properties of seismic isolation devices required for certifiation. Both type testing and FPC tests will be introduced. The details of lead rubber bearings and viscous fluid dampers are compared with EN15129 for better understanding. The contents of LRB include following categories: Materials, Dimensions, Horizontal capacities, Vertical properties, Horizontal properties, Dependency properties and Creep. The contents of viscous dampers include Materials, Dimensions, Horizontal properties and Dependency properties.

Issue:    №4 2019
Authors:    Feng Demin    Liu Wenguang    Miyama Takafumi   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    #6 2020
Authors:    Vedyakov Ivan I.   



The current state of nonlinear calculations of reinforced concrete structures

Key words:  
Annotation:   Reinforced concrete is a non-linear material. This nonlinearity is determined by the nonlinearity of the behavior of concrete during compression and tension, the formation of cracks in tension during the deformation of the structure, as well as the nonlinearity of the work of the reinforcement. Accounting for non-linear work of reinforced concrete is necessary to obtain reliable data on the stress-strain state and strength of structures. But unlike, for example, from steel, the nonlinearity of reinforced concrete manifests itself in a more complex form.
At present, the calculation of buildings and structures, as well as difficult working units of structures is performed using computer programs. The results of numerical studies published in scientific publications and in the reports of scientific conferences show that, unlike metals, it is still extremely difficult to obtain calculated results for the stress-strain state of reinforced concrete structures strictly corresponding to the experimental data.
Issue:   
Authors:    Arleninov P.    Krylov S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Modern Steel Earthquake Resistant Design of Unique Large-Span Coverages of Buildings Ice Arena in Almaty (Republic of Kazakhstan)

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Annotation:  

In article modern constructive solutions of two unique large-span coverages of  buildings of the Ice Arena on 12000 spectator places are provided to Almaty of the Republic of Kazakh-stan and ways of increase of their earthquake resistance.


Issue:   
Authors:    Vashchenko G.A.    Maximov Yu.S.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Сomparison of maximal integral forces under the base with maximal rigid base accelerations as a tool for verification of seismic analysis

Key words:  
Annotation:   Development of verification tools for seismic SSI analysis is discussed in the paper. Combined asymptotic method (CAM) enables verification in different stages of analysis. Particular example of localization of an error is presented in the paper, using the comparison of maximal force under the base and maximal rigid base accelerations calculated by CAM. Two factors spoil the simple link between forces and acceleration based on the second Newton’s law. The first factor is the flexibility of the upper structure. The second factor is the rotational components of the response (without rotational components in seismic excitation). The author suggests the calculation of simple dimensionless ratios between forces, accelerations and masses after CAM calculations. For 1D rigid body motions these ratios are unit. For real structure these ratios are different due to the two abovementioned factors. However, this difference should stay reasonable. If there are any doubts, the author suggests additional CAM calculations without flexibility and rotations. Time-consuming modal analysis of fixed-base structure and calculation of impedances are not repeated, so the additional calculations are very fast and simple. If after excluding flexibility and rotations the ratios do not come to unit, the analyst should look for a mistake. The additional verification tool is a comparison of response spectra for all the variants with excitation spectra. Translational spectra for low frequencies must be almost similar. "
Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Preservation of Architectural Heritage and Seismic-Resistant Ecological Facilities

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Annotation:  

Historical buildings are masonry mass structural systems. Housing is predominantly in masonry systems. The question is how to preserve the architectural heritage and how to build ecological, healthy buildings made of brick and stone with high seismic resistance. The paper presents the experiences of the author applied on four continents, as well as the directions of further development of systems and technologies.

System DC90 technology is based on the use of special devices and earthquake shock absorbers that protect the integrity of structures and raise their resistance to earthquakes. The technology is protected by several patents. In the developed part of the planet the need for justification for using special devices and new systems of construction is no longer present and the preservation of architectural heritage has an important place. That is why the essence of this technology which can be attractive for the Russian Federation and the region is presented here in detail. The author’s desire is to share his experiences with Russian Federation specialists and to contribute to the development of the field. The application of dampers controlling the forces and displacements in the plane of the wall and perpendicular to the wall is presented for historical objects. Additionally, the tensioning technology with collection compensators for preservation of integrity is discussed. For new massive brick buildings the technology of construction without reinforced concrete framing system, but with vertical bracings and seismic dampers is shown.


Issue:   
Authors:    Petraskovic Z.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Spectral Analysis of Non-Canonical Representation of Random Process in the Earthquake Action Modeling Problems for Proportioning of Buildings and Structures

Key words:  
Annotation:   Model of earthquake effect in the form of combination of simple functions with random parameters is analyzed. Random process simulating earthquake effect is given by non-canonical representation. Method of generation of artificial accelerograms of local earthquakes is proposed based on presentation of correlation function as a sum of cosine exponential summands. Approximation parameters of correlation function were defined earlier on the basis of least square method by using MATLAB package with the application of methods of nonlinear approximation. Coincidence of initial and generated spectral curves is used as a quality criterion. Selections of random process realizations from 20 to 10000 accelerograms are used. Algorithms are simply implemented in present day systems of computer mathematics MATLAB, SCILAB. Mathematical model of accelerogram of earthquake in El Centro, 1940, has also been considered. Algorithms application area — computations with the use of Eurocode 8 and standards ISO 2394, ISO 8930, including with the application of probabilistic methods, reliability assessment of buildings and constructions based on the method of statistical testing.
Issue:   
Authors:    Yerzhanov S.Е.    Vladimir A. Lapin   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Peak response spectra of structures under seismic and technogenic dynamic actions

Key words:  
Annotation:   The paper presents the principal statements of the peak response spectra concept, describes a short history of its emergence and development in the period from the 1st half of the 20th century until nowadays. Special attention is paid to the physical sense of the peak response spectrum notion being so necessary for the engineer. In the end the paper gives an example of building a peak displacement spectrum for the California earthquake El Centro (1940).
Issue:   
Authors:    Bayev L.V.    Kurbatsky Ye.N.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Linear Oscillator Response Spectra with Pendulum Seismic Isolators

Key words:  
Annotation:  

Pendulum isolators are widely used for seismic isolation of structures with rigid framing schemes. The existing design methods are based on the assumption of a linear relationship between the restoring force and displacement, this being justified for small displacements. The paper proposes the method for the nonlinear system analysis based on a simple pendulum model. The response spectra of seismo-isolated linear oscillators for actual accelerograms are calculated.


Issue:   
Authors:    Harlanov V. L.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:   
Rubric:     Official documents   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №5 2018
Authors:    Minasyan A.V.   
Rubric:     Eye-witness view   




Key words:  
Annotation:  
Issue:    №4 2018
Authors:    Hachiyan E.E.   
Rubric:     Seismic risk and damage   


The Spitak earthquake of 7 desember 1988: main seismological characteristics and analysis of its destructive effects (to the thirty years after the earthquake)

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Annotation:  

December 7, 1988 in the Northern regions of the Republic ofArmenia there was a strong earthquake, which later became known as the Spitak earthquake. It caused massive destruction of buildings and structures, caused great material damage to the country and claimed the lives of thousands of people. After 30 years, the lessons of the Spitak earthquake are still instructive, both for the engineering community and for the common man in the street. A detailed scientific account of all the features and consequences of the Spitak earthquake is given in this article.

Unfortunately, there are very few instrumental records of the Spitak earthquake. The article provides an analysis of the few accelerograms of the earthquake, which were registered both at seismic stations of the former USSR and abroad. Presented and analyzed the geophysical and energy characteristics of the focus of earthquakes, foreshocks and aftershocks of the seismic event.

The earthquake in the epicentral zone caused significant geotechnical changes on the Earth’s surface in the form of dislocations, landslides, landslides, ledges, cracks, falling large volumes of rock, soil liquefaction, destruction of the railway track. The results of studies to assess the impact of local soil conditions on the strengthening or weakening of the level of concussion of soils.

The article presents a method of instrumental assessment of the degree of damage to buildings after the earthquake, regulated by the norms of earthquake-resistant construction in Armenia. The method is based on the ratio of periods of oscillation of damaged and undamaged buildings.

The article also discusses the socio-economic consequences of the Spitak earthquake, and describes the great assistance provided by the international community to the Armenian people in the aftermath of the devastating earthquake, the feats shown by thousands of doctors, rescuers, pilots, drivers, builders and workers.



Authors:    Hachiyan E.E.   
Rubric:     Seismic risk and damage   


Comparison of the work of various variants of engineering protection structures and their combinations in a seismic area on the example of the object "Engineering landslide protection of the northern slope of the Psekhako ridge"

Key words:   engineering protection, seismic area, dangerous geological processes, mathematical modeling, stability calculation
Annotation:   The paper contains the work of various variants of retaining structures of engineering protection. The paper contains the project "Engineering landslide protection of the northern slope of the Psekhako ridge". The construction site is located in the Adler district of Sochi. The construction area includes the Lower station of the cableway "F" and the retaining Wall-3, which are part of the Gazprom Mountain Resort. The object is located in a seismically dangerous area, which increases the risk of the formation of dangerous geological processes. The requirements for the device of engineering protection measures increase, there is a need for calculations of the structure for seismic impact. The paper considers two types of anti-landslide protection structures – two stages. The first stage is the "Initial state of the object" – the construction of a cableway station, the construction of a retaining Wall-3, the fixing of the slope by anchor fields and the fixing of Wall-3 by anchors through the construction. The second stage is the "Reconstruction of the engineering protection system" – the installation of new retaining walls lower down the slope. Numerical modeling was performed by PLAXIS 2D. The stability calculation was performed for a different combination of engineering protection options, the calculated safety factors were compared with the normalized value of the slope stability coefficient for numerical modeling. In results of the work made conclusions and recommendation.
Issue:    #5-2021
Authors:    Afanas’ev Nikita A.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Comparative Characteristics of Accelerograms Modeled for Various Seismotectonic Conditions

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Annotation:  

The authors present comparative characteristics of accelerogram dynamic parameters obtained by deep-focus earthquake records in the Wranch zone at focus-distant seismic stations and the Crimea regional stations. They are calculated with account of the statistical properties of foci parametric sets and their dependences on the earthquake energy. The essential differences of accelerograms being compared are shown both in the spectral and the time domains.


Issue:   
Authors:    Kalinyuk I.V.    Kulchitsky V.Ye.    Merzhei Ye.A.    Pustovitenko B.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Comparative Analysis of Eurocodes EN 1991 and the updated version of SNiP “Loads and Actions”

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Annotation:   The paper presents a comparative analysis of the basic principles, requirements and methods adopted in Eurocodes 1991 and the updated version of SNiP “Loads and actions” referring to issues of setting loads and actions on buildings and structures. The basic approaches to development of national applications are given as a method of harmonization of the domestic and European design and construction codes.
Issue:   
Authors:    Lebedeva I.V.    Popov N.A.   
Rubric:     Official documents   


Statistics of Basic Parameters for Strong Earthquake Sources in the Baikal Region

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Annotation:  

The information on the Baikal region strong earthquake focal mechanisms has been summarized in the schematic map of the epicenters, density contours and the representativity table. The structure and basic regularities of focal mechanism complete sample are formed by quantitatively dominating impact faults. Conformance of the average incidence angles DPaver and the average SLIP moduli of thrust-faults and faults does not rule out a possibility of adjustment movements of these types only on fault planes. The average incidence angles for different slip types exceed 50o that evidences on the rather steep pitch of fault zones.


Issue:   
Authors:    Klyuchevskiy A. V.   
Rubric:     Monitoring the state of natural-technical systems   


Strength Statistics Changes of Reinforced Concrete Elements Under Reversal Cyclic Loading

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The article presents results of experimental and analytical modeling of RC elements behavior under low-intensity seismic loads. Identical reversed cyclic loading leads to strength reduction and failure mode changing. Deterioration processes are particularly depending on reinforcement ratio.


Issue:   
Authors:    Pinus B.I.    Sozonov P.S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Statistical Modeling of the Earthquake Input

Key words:   statistical modeling, seismic isolation, accelerogram, seismogram, random pulse, input model, spectral density, autocorrelation function, Arias intensity, acceleration spectrum
Annotation:   The main problem of modeling statistical seismic vibrations is correct input accelerogram setting. The analysis of the known seismic input models showed the erroneousness of using them in analyzing seismically isolated systems. These statistical models allow one to obtain either reliable accelerations or reliable displacements. However, complicated input models do not quite correspond to real earthquakes. Energy characteristics were not considered at all in the problems of accelerogram statistical modeling. A new model of seismic input, including a random pulse, has been considered. Three parameters has been added to the input model: the magnitude Мw , the epicentral distance R, and the moment when the pulse appears. Varying these parameters within the set limits allows one to adjust additional input characteristics. An example of the proposed process is given.
Issue:    №5 2019
Authors:    Uzdin A.M.    Smirnova L.N.    Sorokina G.V.    Abakarov A.    Zaynulabidova H.    Prokopovich S.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Building Science and Human Environment Safety

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Annotation:   The paper considers issues of scientific support of the Russian construction development. The analysis of drawbacks in the current arrangement of the domestic building science is given. The shortcomings in arranging updating of the current normative documents at the state level and other issues are specified. As a positive factor, an example is presented referring to the long-term plan of the European construction development (the European building platform) with the adequate program of scientific research. The problems of further development of the building science as a major factor for support of human environment safety are outlined.
Issue:   
Authors:    Volkov Yu.S.    Travush V.I.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Combination of modal responses in linear spectral method: comparison of different formulae for correlation coefficients

Key words:   : linear-spectral seismic analysis of structures, correlation coefficients, one-mode responses
Annotation:  

Linear-spectral method (LSM) is still the common method for the seismic design analysis. "One-component one-mode" responses, obtained by static analysis in the conventional variant of LSM, are combined twice: first for different modes but for each single excitation component separately, then for the different excitation components. In the alternative LSM variant presented in the Russian code SP 14.13330, first one chooses the "most dangerous" direction of the one-component excitation for each mode; then calculates the "one-mode" response for this excitation, and finally these responses are combined. In both cases the combination is performed using the complete quadratic combination (CQC) rule. Different documents suggest different formulae for the correlation coefficients. In the paper different formulae are compared to each other. The goal is to limit the number of calculated coefficients and decrease the amount of calculations.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Combination of Responses to the Different Components of Seismic Excitation for the Platform Model of the Soil-Structure System

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Annotation:  

The author continues a set of papers about spectral seismic analysis of soil-structure systems. In this publication general approach is suggested to the combination of responses to the different components of excitation. The excitation is put on the platform in the platform model of the soil-structure system. Generally, 18 responses participate in the combination, but for the common case of symmetrical structure resting on the surface of horizontally-layered soil with vertically propagating seismic wave only five responses are to be combined.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Technical Regulation of Construction – Ways of Solving Problems

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Annotation:   The paper considers the latest innovations in the field of technical regulation of construction. The authors analyze the drawbacks of the current Technical Regulation «On Safety of Buildings and Structures», the order of putting into effect of the updated normative documents, identify the problems connected with an opportunity of direct (alternative) introduction of Eurocodes, point out the drawbacks in management of technical regulation in construction on the government level and other issues.
Issue:   
Authors:    Volkov Yu.S.    Zvezdov A.I.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Residential Buildings Classification of Karakol City (Kyrgyzstan)

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Annotation:   Recently, earthquake engineering efforts have devoted much attention to the issue of seismic vulnerability based on the concept of seismic risk at which the loss degree is estimated for elements in terms of physical, economic and social losses. The question of seismic vulnerability of the built environment to earthquakes covers a very large spectrum of tasks. From these tasks, the main one is the probabilistic estimation of vulnerability as a basic loss element in the estimation of the expected seismic risk.
Issue:   
Authors:    Kamchybekov Yrysmendi   
Rubric:     Monitoring and certification of seismic constructions   




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Annotation:  
Issue:    №6 2019



Index of Articles Published in the Journal «Earthquake Engineering. Constructions Safety» 2020, no. 1 – 6

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Annotation:  
Issue:    #6 2020
Authors:    Editor   



Elastoplastic Behavior of Trip-Out Metal Beams in the Encased Concrete Pile System

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The results of studies in the “restoring force – displacement” relationship for trip-out metal beam braces are presented. This relationship is required to define parameters in the elastic and non-elastic stages as well as of the beam limit deflection.


Issue:   
Authors:    Gaipov S.K.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Elastoplastic Behavior of a Concrete Pile in the “Pile-in-Tube” System under Seismic Effects

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Annotation:   Some results of the research program for optimization of seismoisolation pile-in-tube systems are presented. Various types of these systems are demonstrated. Several parameters of presented systems are responsible for seismic load decrease, such as pile flexibility, depth of the pile end, fuse reserve elements properties, etc. An optimum combination of the mentioned parameters is the main goal of the presented study as well as elaboration and implementation of practical engineering solutions.
Issue:   
Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.    Gaipov S.K.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Equation of planar vibrations of rigid structure on kinematic supports after A.M. Kurzanov

Key words:   kinematical rolling support after A.M. Kurzanov, free vibrations, seismic response
Annotation:  

The author derives the equation of planar vibrations of rigid structure resting on kinematical pendulum supports with planar bottom (after A.M. Kurzanov). Both support and the surface below are assumed rigid; no sliding assumed. One of the coefficients in the equation (i.e. coordinate of the rotation center) proves to be piece-wise constant. The equation is of the hyperbolic type with parametric terms. Even linearization of this equation does not bring it to the conventional equation of the SDOF oscillator. Principal difference is that the free vibration period depends on the amplitude. The equation is checked for free and forced vibrations. Similar problem is for the seismic response of the unanchored items. For the further research the experimental data about damping are of great importance: both for rotation and the gap closing.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Improvement of Alternative Method of Definition of Seismic Loadings on Building Without Application of Response Spectrum Coefficient

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Annotation:   The alternative method of definition of seismic loadings on the building, based on resistibilityof a construction to vibrationdeformations, without application of response spectrum coefficient is considered. Seismic loads at a foundations level are revealed, that leads to redistribution and decrease of seismic influences on a construction.
Issue:   
Authors:    Atabekyan R.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Soil Pillow in the Rock under the Base Mat as Possible Option to Decrease Structural Seismic Response

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Annotation:  

The author checks the possibility of decreasing seismic response of structure on a rock site by means of making comparatively soft «soil pillow» under the base mat.


Issue:   
Authors:    Tyapin A.G.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Clarification of the coefficient of responsibility K0 when calculating earthquake resistance for individual structural elements (columns) of multi-storey monolithic reinforced concrete frame buildings (in the order of discussion)

Key words:   responsibility of the load-bearing structure, frame buildings, monolithic reinforced concrete, mechanical safety, significance coefficient, volume of destruction
Annotation:   The analysis of the regulatory documents of the Russian Federation in terms of the requirements for accounting for the responsibility of buildings and structures when calculating for seismic impacts is given. For discussion, an approach is proposed to the differentiated assignment of the responsibility coefficient K0 for individual structural elements (columns) of a multi-storey monolithic reinforced concrete frame building when determining calculated seismic loads. Based on the results of calculations for an emergency settlement situation associated with the expected initial local destruction of the column, taking into account its different location in the plan and height for the columns, the values of the coefficients of significance of the location in the plan and the location in height are determined, taking into account the analysis of the calculated volumes of destruction, and are further used to clarify the values of the coefficients of responsibility K0.
Issue:    #4 2021
Authors:    Trekin N.N.    Kodysh E.N.    Shchedrin Oleg S.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   




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Annotation:  
Issue:    №3 2018
Authors:    Smirnova L.N.    Uzdin A.M.    Prokopovich S.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


The Refinement of the Model of Seismic Input for the Statistical Modeling of Structures

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Annotation:   The paper describes a statistical method taking into account the velocity pulse and the energy characteristics of the reference impact. An example of generation of an impact is also given, which includes the impulse component.

Authors:    Smirnova L.N.    Uzdin A.M.    Prokopovich S.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Updated Assessment of Seismic Hazard for the Areas of Kolsky Peninsula and Karelia, Based on Records of Local Earthquakes

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Annotation:  

Updated accurate estimates of seismic effects from scenario earthquakes are obtained for the areas of Kolsky peninsula and Karelia; calculations were carried out with regional characteristics of radiation and propagation of seismic waves that were estimated based on records of local earthquakes. Seismic intensity, peak ground accelerations and velocities, response spectra, and other characteristics are estimated from acceleration time histories of motions on the surface calculated by stochastic method. Higher estimates of seismic intensity and peak ground accelerations and velocities were obtained, as compared to the estimates obtained earlier and based on world-average characteristics or from areas with similar geological structure. The main cause of the obtained differences and high new estimates of seismic effects is neglecting in past studies high values of the stress drop, ??~bars, typical for this region.


Issue:    №6 2018
Authors:    Pavlenko O.V.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   

read more

Updated accurate estimates of seismic effects from scenario earthquakes are obtained for the areas of Kolsky peninsula and Karelia; calculations were carried out with regional characteristics of radiation and propagation of seismic waves that were estimated based on records of local earthquakes. Seismic intensity, peak ground accelerations and velocities, response spectra, and other characteristics are estimated from acceleration time histories of motions on the surface calculated by stochastic method. Higher estimates of seismic intensity and peak ground accelerations and velocities were obtained, as compared to the estimates obtained earlier and based on world-average characteristics or from areas with similar geological structure. The main cause of the obtained differences and high new estimates of seismic effects is neglecting in past studies high values of the stress drop, ??~bars, typical for this region.


Taking into Account the Dynamic Properties of the Soil when Calculating the Pile Foundations of Nuclear Facilities under Seismic Effcts

Key words:   nuclear power facilities, dynamic properties of the base, piles, earthquakes
Annotation:   Pile foundations are among the most reliable and proven types of foundations. They used in nuclear power engineering for a variety of impacts, including seismic. At the same time, one of the most diffilt issues is the evaluation of the strength of piles during an earthquake, taking into account the dynamic properties of the base. Currently, there are various approaches to this assessment, the results of which can signifiantly affct the objective condition of the bearing capacity of the piles. In this regard, it is necessary to consider the degree of inflence of various ways of taking into account the dynamic properties of the base on the results of calculating the strength of piles during an earthquake. The study of these issues is devoted to this article.
Issue:    №4 2019
Authors:    Travin Sergei M.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Taking into consideration seismic effects on foundations of tancs

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Annotation:   The method of calculation of the first group of limiting states, taking into account the special combination of loads, including seismic impacts, soil bases reservoirs and tanks located on pile foundations. An example of the calculation.
Issue:   
Authors:    Stavnitcer L. R.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Account of Seismic Impacts in Geomechanical Stability of Underground Structures

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Annotation:   Existing methods of underground mining design are not including special parameters for account of possible seismic events that cause additional dynamic effects on the elements of rock mass. Traditionally it is assumed that stability of underground structures on seismic effects is sufficiently large compared with terrestrial objects. Nevertheless, seismic effects may contribute to the loss of reserves due to dilution, and works at depth are of high risk here and even a minor factor is important. Calculations of stressed state of mining system at dynamical impacts is performed and seismic coefficient for safety factor assurance is proposed.
Issue:   
Authors:    Zaalishvili V.B.    Mel’kov D.A.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Consideration of Seismic Effects in Assessment of Slope Stability According to the Ukranian Code (DBN V.1.1-12:2006) in Terms of High-Rise Housing Construction in Alupka, the Crimea Autonomous Republic

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Annotation:  

The paper presents the results of slope stability assessment in terms of practical calculations referring to the high-rise housing project in Alupka with account of seismic effects according to methods in DBN V.1.1-12:2006.


Issue:   
Authors:    Berchun V.P.    Kalyukh T.Yu.    Kalyukh Yu.I.    Kilvander E.Ya.    Silchenko K.V.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Vulnerability Of Angarsk-City School Buildings Stock Evaluation Within the Regional Seismic Safety Program of the Irkutsk Region

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Annotation:  

According to the maps of general seismic zoning GSZ-97, the seismicity of the Angarsk-city area (Irkutsk region) was increased from 2000 from 7 to (8, 8, 9) points. Among 200000 m2, one third of the school buildings stock was built in the period of 1949?64 using anti-seismic methods in accordance with the standard CH-8?57. According to the classification scales MSK-64 and MMSK-86, these buildings belong to the types A and B with the level 5 and 6 of seismic resistance. The rest of the school buildings belongы to the class C7. The calculations show that the individual seismic risk of a 7?magnitude earthquake is classified as a level of «acceptable» risk, the seismic risk of a 8?point earthquake is considered as a «high» risk level. A relative damage extent for the school buildings stock would be evaluated as 0.08 and 0.41, respectively.


Issue:   
Authors:    Berzhinskaya L.P.    Berzhinsky Yu.A.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Fundamental aspects of seismic microzonation

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Annotation:   Seismic microzonation (SMZ), as generally accepted, is an essential part of engineering survey regulated by numerous normative documents. At the same time, the scientific component of the SMZ work falls back into the shadow, if at all is considered. Meanwhile, the SMZ touch upon the bases of many fundamental problems of seismology, building physics, soil mechanics, seismic wave, etc. The paper concerns a brief consideration of the SMZ aspects, which traditionally belong to the field of fundamental science.
Issue:   
Authors:    Aleshin A.S.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Center for Complex Seismic Testing: Current Situation and Prospects of Development

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Annotation:  

Recent advances in technology make it possible to design, produce and successfully operate the test benches for full-scale investigations of seismic stability of building structures and various equipment. Electrotechnical components hold a special place in the aggregate of critical equipment. Stable functioning of electrical networks during and after the earthquake is the factor having an impact on relative reduction of damage from the earthquake and the success of restoration work.

The report addresses issues related to the organization of full-scale seismic testing of relatively large power equipment in the ­Russian Federation. In the report there are given the basic characteristics of large test facilities which allow carrying out earthquake resistance tests. The authors contemplate the prospects of creation of specialized testing centers that allow organizing a full range of testing of power equipment in accordance with the international standards.


Issue:   
Authors:    Demishin S. V.    Savkov S.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Partial Criteria of Masonry Strength for ElasticPlastic Deformation

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Annotation:  

The paper presents the results of the currently used masonry strength criteria analysis. The principle of forming partial strength criteria based on the results of studying masonry specimen failure schemes is considered. The formulas for determining the values of partial strength criteria are proposed to discretely simulate masonry as a composite medium consisting of heterogeneous materials and their connections.


Issue:   
Authors:    Kabantsev O.V.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Frequency-dependent Response of Soft (Sandy and Loess) Soils in Seismic Motion and Seismic Rigidity Method

Key words:   soil response, response spectra, seismic rigidity method (MSG)
Annotation:   With this work, we start studying of the response of soils of various types (among 11 types of the most representative surface soils on the territory of Russian Federation) in seismic motion, based on in situ observations (KiK-net data). The response of soft sandy and loess soils to weak and medium-intensity seismic motion is analyzed. We show that the response of rather homogeneous soil profiles (without clear seismic boundaries) to seismic motion is frequency-dependent and contains resonant frequencies, at which seismic motion is noticeably enhanced. At stronger seismic motion, the resonant frequencies are reduced, and the amplification of seismic motion by soil layers is also reduced. These effects are not taken into account in seismic rigidity method, the application of which is still required by the Building codes acting in Russia. We should change the practice of application of the seismic rigidity method in the Building codes, by clearly defining the scope of the method, and we should move to the spectral description of the corrections for ground conditions in earthquake resistant construction, by means of response spectra, as done in other countries.


Issue:    №1 2020
Authors:    Deshcherevskaya E.V.    Pavlenko O.V.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Numerical Modeling of NPP Containment Prestress System Via Functions of «Irregular» Hexahedron Forms

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Annotation:  

The present article has been devoted to development and improvement of method used for numerical modeling structures of containment prestress system (CPS) tendons via functions of finite element (FE) forms of «irregular» prism, hexahedron, providing sufficiently effective approximation of the volume model and more improved interpolation of rope nodal efforts, along with fast algorithm of operation.

The article presents main provisions of the mathematical apparatus, being a basis of the method; force vectors' interpolation examples are given for separate finite elements and the prestressed containment whole model. CPS is calculated as per the AES-2006 design, and the calculation results are compared using interpolation method of tetrahedron form functions and «irregular» prism form functions; the major prerequisites are set forth for subsequent development of prestressed tendons modeling method, considering the more sophisticated physical-mechanical phenomena and real performance of containment structure. 

The produced method outcome is the author's developed domestic software complex, allowing with sufficient accuracy to carry out calculations and modelling of the CPS, considering arbitrary spatial trace of tendons within the containment, giving reply to the main questions: whether is the minimum level of compression sufficient and whether is the operational suitability of a structure provided?


Issue:   
Authors:    Romanov A.V.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Numerical analysis of a model of seismic isolated multi-store building

Key words:  
Annotation:   On the basis of numerical modeling, an algorithm and a computer program for calculating a seismically insulated building have been developed, and the results of the dynamic behavior of the superstructure under various effects, including seismic in the form of given accelerograms of earthquakes, have been obtained. From the obtained results, using the example of a multi-storey frame building, it follows that the maximum acceleration in a seismically isolated model decreases by about 4 times compared to a model without seismic isolation. Also implemented hysteresis model Bouc-Wen and obtained results for different values of the parameters chosen so that the mathematical modeling data coincide with the experimental data
Issue:   
Authors:    Nizomov J.N.    Kalandarbekov I.    Hojiboev A.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


What is Detailed Seismic Zoning?

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Annotation:  

The concept of the detailed seismic zoning (DSZ) is presented. DSZ’ purposes and problems are determined, as well as the methods of solving the DSZ’ problems. The relation of DCZ with other types of seismic zoning, such as the general seismic zoning and microzoning, is defined.


Issue:   
Authors:    Aptikayev F.F.    Erteleva O.O.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning   


Seismic Intensity Scale and Building Design Codes

Key words:  
Annotation:   The problems and scopes of the macroseismic intensity scales are discussed.
The main attention is given to MSK (Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik)-scales. Some uncertainties and mistakes in MSK-64 scale are indicated using the seismic upset analysis. These faults make doubtful the results of the scale practical use.
Some proposals are formulated concerning macroseismic scales practical use.
The proposal of waiving the notions and parameters of the macroseismic scale in further development of design codes and standards is discussed.
Issue:   
Authors:    Eisenberg J.M.   
Rubric:     Technical regulation and design standards development   


Economic Assessment and Insurance Questions of Consequences of Dangerous Geological and Permafrost Processes

Key words:  
Annotation:   Questions of social and economic studying of the geological environment which are defined by a number of the essential properties distinguishing it from other environments are considered. The approaches to the technique and methodology of the insurance division of the territory of the Russian Federation are shown. The necessity of carrying out geological and permafrost insurance risks is proved. For receiving insurance ratings on the territory need of introduction of standard and legal acts, normative and technical and methodical documents of federal, regional and municipal levels is given.
Issue:   
Authors:    Chesnokova I.V.   
Rubric:     Seismic risk and damage   


Economic Problems of Insurance of Buildings and Structures in Ukraine’s Earthquake Areas

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Annotation:  

The paper considers the mechanisms of insurance against natural hazards in different countries, outlines the positive features and problems that hold back the development of insurance against earthquakes. In terms of weak earthquakes for the last 2 years the author has analyzed the economic damage compared with the contribution of the insurance branch into the recovery of these countries after seismic disasters. The necessity of improving the insurance culture of people is earmarked. The trends and opportunities of insurance in seismic areas of Ukraine are considered.


Issue:   
Authors:    Ivleva N.P.   
Rubric:     Seismic risk and damage   


Experimental Model for Double Concave Sliding Bearings

Key words:   seismic isolation, concave bearings, single double pendulum, friction pendulum, sliding isolation.
Annotation:   This study deals with the modeling of sliding friction seismic isolation devices. Recent large-scale experimental tests confimed the need for accurate models to account for the friction performance in the ranges of loads, velocity and displacement expected during a seismic excitation. An existing experimental model previously validated for single concave isolators is here extended to double concave sliding isolators. Full-scale mono-directional tests on a set of double concave friction bearings in are used to validate and calibrate the model. The friction model includes three independent functions to account for the effcts of applied vertical load, velocity, and cycling effcts associated to heating. The applicability of the model to the double concave isolators is discussed, in comparison with earlier results of single concave isolators.
Issue:    №4 2019
Authors:    Adzhemyan A.    Benzoni Gianmario    Lomiento Giuseppe   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Reinforced Concrete Beams on Yielding Supports over Oblique Sections under Seismic and other Dynamic Loads

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Annotation:  

The paper presents the results of experimental studies of reinforced concrete beams on supports with different ductility under short-time lateral loading. The resistance of structures along oblique sections at different shear spans is considered. For the beams considered the numerical analysis is made using the ad hoc software. The results of the analysis are compatible with the experimental values. By the results of the analysis made one traces good agreement between theoretical and experimental data.


Issue:   
Authors:    Galyautdinov Z.R.    Kokorin D.N.    Kumpyak O   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Experimental and theoretical study of seismic reinforcement of the construction of masonry by externally bonded FRP systems

Key words:  
Annotation:   Investigated the influence of the external reinforcement system by composite materials based on carbon fibers on the carrying capacity of construction with walls of brick masonry under seismic loading. Defined the mechanism of working of the reinforced samples and identified basic construction requirements, which helps increase seismic stability. The method of calculation of carrying capacity of brick masonry reinforced composite materials is presented.
Issue:   
Authors:    Tonkikh G.P.    Kabantsev O.V.    Granovsky A.V.    Osipov P.V.    Buzin R.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Experimental and Numerical Study of Strength of Reinforced Concrete Column Joints Under Short-term Dynamic Load

Key words:  
Annotation:   The article presents the results of research work joints of reinforced concrete columns without increasing or reinforced with metal clips with short-term dynamic loading. For realization of this task has developed a program of experimental and numerical their research. As a result of experimental studies were obtained scheme of strain, crack formation and destruction, as well as the values of failure loads of experimental samples. The obtained results are compared with the data of numerical calculations performed with the help of the calculation of a program based on the finite elements method. The results of experimental and numerical calculations have shown good agreement and reliability upgrades joints columns metal clips.
Issue:   
Authors:    Goncharov M.E.    Plevkov V.S.    Radchenko A.V.    Radchenko P.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Experimental study of steel towers sets of power lines for seismic regions

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Annotation:   The natural gas and oil located in remote areas are characterized by high seismicity, resulted in the necessity to apply various constructive solutions of power transmission line for their uninterrupted energy supply both before and during the earthquake and after it. Therefore, recently the problem of studying the behavior of different constructive solutions of sets of transmission towers under seismic input is a topical one. The paper presents the data of experimental studies on steel towers sets of power lines 6 -10 kV, intended for use in areas with seismicity of 7-9 earthquake magnitude on the MSK-64 scale. The tests were carried out in the testing laboratory of V. A. Koucherenko CREE TSNIISK in 2016. The method of testing and the results of experimental studies are presented.
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Authors:    Smirnova L.N.    Polyakov V.S.    Petrosyan A.E.    Zhdanova T. V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Experimental Studies of Anchor Fittings Behavior under Dynamic Effects

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Annotation:   A great amount of buildings and structures of various heights and purposes to be built in Russia’s seismic zones (particularly, owing  to construction of unique sports and public centers of Sochi Olympics) raises questions to designers that cannot be answered because of insufficient volume of experimental and theoretical studies or due to lack of reflection in the regulatory literature. The examples of these problems are attached faсade systems and the methods of their fixing to buildings’ walls with anchor fittings.
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Authors:    Granovsky A.V.    Kiselyov D.A.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Experimental Investigations of Earthquake Resistance of SORMAT Anchors

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Annotation:   Experts of the Research Center of Earthquake Engineering at the V.A.Kucherenko TsNIISK and F-EXPERT Co. based at the Institute of Facade Structures (IFBT GmbH - Leipzig, Germany) have performed the complex dynamic studies to assess the earthquake resistance of SORMAT anchor fittings. The paper presents the anchor dynamic test program and the methods allowing assessment of their behavior under earthquake effects with 7-9-point intensity. The tests of anchors were conducted in the laboratory at the Research Center of Earthquake Engineering and in IFBT (Institut fur Fassaden und Befestigungstechnik).
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Authors:    Granovsky A.V.    Mirskoy L.B.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Operational Reliability of Industrial Buildings in Seismically Dangerous Areas

Key words:   industrial building, seismic resistance, horizontal vibrations, self-cooker sole foundation, dot-balls bearing
Annotation:   The solution of a single-storey industrial building, of working with significant horizontal seismic vibrations. Earthquake building carried out by separating the sole-plate foundation resting on the ground, from the rest of the multi-stage foundation for the frame column. The gap formed by constructive in the individual cells are arranged point-balls bearings, have freedom of movement in the horizontal plane. Under horizontal vibrations of the earth and the sole-plate the rest of the basement and the building itself remain at rest. It noted an interesting fact: the performance and reliability of the proposed solutions of seismic stability of buildings received unexpected confirmation,  that one of the buildings in the Chilean capital of Santiago, built in the sixteenth century, survived dozens of earthquakes, is the oldest building and it became clear that its ancient walls are mounted on ball-shaped stones.
Issue:    №3 2020
Authors:    Kulov R.P.    Kulov A.R.    Kulova Kh.R.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


Proximate Monitoring of the Oil-Trunk Pipeline Deformations in Thawing Halos in the Terrain Undulation Areas along the East Siberia — Pacific Ocean ESPO2 Route

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The original methods of computer modeling of trunk pipeline settlement and stress state in thawing halos in the permafrost areas are described. The calculations of the pipeline strength reserve on the part of the East Siberia — Pacific Ocean ESPO-2 route are given.


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Authors:    Kotlyarevskiy V.A.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


The Energy State of Non-Rigid Pavement in Simulation Modeling of Dynamic Automobile Load

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Annotation:   Considers the theoretical laws of formation and transformation of energy in the construction of pavements for modeling of energy metabolism in their beds. The mathematical expressions for the evaluation of the work done by the pavement to create a simulation model of loading.
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Authors:    Gorjachev M.G.   
Rubric:     Seismic safety and seismic isolation of buildings   


Energy-Efficient Dwelling Houses. World and Domestic Design and Construction Practice

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Annotation:   The paper presents the main design principles, the ways of their realization and cost indexes of energy-efficient dwelling houses in foreign countries and in Russia.
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Authors:    Zhigulina A.Yu.   
Rubric:     Design, building and reconstruction of a seismic constructions   


The Effectiveness of Use of the Sheets From Carbon Fibre Fabric in Brickwork of the Buildings From Different Rock Materials, Constructed in Earthquake Zones

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In the article there have been analyzed the results of experimental testing of strength of brick cellular-concrete piers (partitions), reinforced by the sheets from carbon-fibre fabric, against activity of static shearing load, simulating seismic load on masonry construction in case of earthquakes. Test technology has been provided. The experiment shows the options for reinforcing the brick piers (brick partitions) by the sheets from carbon-fibre fabric with one or two-sided position of reinforcement elements. There is a comparison with the results of tests of deviation (misalignment) of the unreinforced brick piers (brick partitions). There is a description of technology of fastening of the sheets to brickwork.


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Authors:    Gasiyev A.A.    Granovsky A.V.    Dzhamuev B.K.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


Efficiency of Seismic Isolation of Multistory Reinforced Concrete Building With Friction Pendulum Bearings at Different Spectral Composition of Earthquakes Accelerograms

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Annotation:   In this article reaction of multistory concrete building with seismic protection systems in the form of friction pendulum bearings to the earthquake is researched. Seismic isolation bearings of the company FIP Industriale were chosen for seismic isolation of building. Researches are carried out using the software package LS-DYNA. Analysis of work of 16‑storey concrete building at seismic load, given as a two-component accelerograms normalized to 9 points on the MSK‑64 scale, is carried out. The calculations are carried out by the direct dynamic method. The main results include numerical values of upper isolator displacements relative to its bottom at different variants of the dominant frequencies of external influence. Bearing failure criterions depending on the parameters of seismic load are presented in the conclusions.
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Authors:    Arutyunyan L.M.    Mkrtychev O.V.   
Rubric:     Theoretical and experimental studies   


EFFECTS OF ANOMALOUSLY WEAK AND STRONG AMPLIFICATION OF SEISMIC WAVES IN SOIL LAYERS, WITH THE EXAMPLE OF TWO STATIONS OF KIK-NET STRONG MOTION NETWORK OF JAPAN

Key words:   seismic wave amplification, resonant phenomena, nonlinearity of soil behavior, models of soil behavior, KiK-net network
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Experimentally observed effects of anomalously weak and strong amplification of seismic waves in soft subsurface soils are studied using the records of KiK-net seismic vertical arrays (of strong motion network of Japan). The amplification was estimated based on peak ground accelerations recorded during ~20 earthquakes at each station. To interpret the obtained results, we engaged models of soil behavior at these sites during the Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011.

The general conclusion that can be drawn from the obtained results is that the effect of the three mechanisms of seismic wave transformations in soil layers largely depends on the composition of the soil down to depths of ~100 m.


Issue:    №4 2020
Authors:    Deshcherevskaya E.V.    Pavlenko O.V.   
Rubric:     Seismic zoning